- What are electromagnetic fields?
- Static and low-frequency fields
- What are static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields?
- Direct and alternating voltage
- Effects of static and low-frequency fields
- Reports & Evaluations
- Radiation protection relating to the expansion of the national grid
- Basics transfer of electrical power
- High-frequency fields
- What are high-frequency fields?
- Applications high-frequency fields
- Radiation protection in mobile communication
- What is mobile communication?
- Reports and evaluations
- What is optical radiation?
- UV radiation
- What is UV radiation?
- Sun but safe!
- Effects of UV radiation
- Protection against UV radiation
- UV index
- Infrared radiation
- What is ionising radiation?
- Radioactivity in the environment
- Where does radioactivity occur in the environment?
- What is the level of natural radiation exposure in Germany?
- Air, soil and water
- Building materials
- Industrial residues (NORM)
- BfS laboratories
- Applications in medicine
- Radiation protection in medicine: international activities
- Applications in daily life and in technology
- Radioactive radiation sources in Germany
- Register high-level radioactive radiation sources
- Type approval procedure pursuant to RöV and StrlSchV
- Cabin luggage security checks
- Radioactive materials in watches
- Ionisation smoke detectors (ISM)
- What are the effects of radiation?
- Effects of selected radioactive materials
- Consequences of a radiation accident
- Cancer and leukaemia
- Genetic radiation effects
- Individual radiosensitivity
- Epidemiology of radiation-induced diseases
- Ionising radiation: positive effects?
- Risk estimation and assessment
- Radiation protection
- Basic informations
- Occupational radiation protection
- Nuclear accident management
- What is an emergency?
- What happens in an emergency?
- Federal and state tasks
- In the event of an emergency
- Measuring networks
- Exercises for emergency situations
- Defence against nuclear hazards
- Service offers
- Radon measurements
- Incorporation monitoring
- Biological dosimetry
- Online library
- About us
- Science and research
- Research concept
- Scientific collaborations
- EU research framework programme
- BfS research programme
- Third-party funded research
- Departmental research
- Selected research projects
- Selected research results
- Professional opinions
- Science Council
- Laws and regulations
- BfS Topics in the Bundestag
Procedure of Incorporation Monitoring
- Incorporation monitoring is performed to assess if occupationally exposed workers have incorporated radioactive substances.
- For the determination of the incorporated activity in-vivo and in-vitro methods as well as room air measurements are commonly used.
- The activity "incorporation monitoring" is administered by the Coordinating Office on Incorporation Monitoring at the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS).
For the handling of sources of ionising radiation, dose limits for the workers have been laid down in the German Radiation Protection Ordinance (Strahlenschutzverordnung - StrlSchV). For the effective dose this value is 20 mSv per year. When handling open radioactive substances, the body dose can be composed of external and/or internal radiation exposure, depending on working conditions, the chemical form of the used substances and the type of radionuclides.
Internal exposure always occurs when radionuclides have entered the body, this is referred to as incorporation. The activity taken up by inhalation or ingestion must not result in exceeding the dose limits (effective dose or organ dose, respectively) of the StrlSchV. Neither must these dose limits be exceeded by the sum of the contributions of internal and external radiation exposure.
Methods and competences
The monitoring of incorporation is regulated in the German Guideline of Physical Radiation Protection Control. The following monitoring methods for the determination of the incorporated activity are commonly used:
- In-vivo methods: Determination of activity in the body or in the organs
- In-vitro methods: Determination of activity concentration in excretions
- Room air measurements: Determination of activity concentration in the air at the work place.
The first two methods are carried out by approved laboratories responsible for incorpration monitoring (ALIM). These laboratories are accredited by the respective competent German Federal States authorities. The third method is used when the first two methods are not suitable. This is the case if, e.g., the radionuclides to be monitored are too short-lived or the methods are not sensitive enough. In this case the responsible radiation protection supervisor and/or the radiation protection officer at the site allows taking appropiate actions.
Retrospective dose assessment
It is the task of incorporation monitoring to assess retrospectively if occupationally exposed workers incorporated radioactive substances. The possibly incorporated activity is determined and the body dose resulting from this uptake is assessed using the monitored data. This means that incorporation monitoring, based on measurements, serves to determine retrospectively a radiation exposure. It is not intended to achieve precautionary radiation protection tasks as, e.g., optimization of radiation protection measures.
Since 1996, the Coordinating Office on Incorporation Monitoring at the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) has assumed the responsibility for "incorporation monitoring". The Coordinating Office is responsible for all principal and special questions concerning incorporation monitoring not covered by the German Federal States. The spectrum of information and consultancy comprises both the determination of activity in the respective medium (body, urine, faeces etc.) and the corresponding dose assessment.
State of 2018.04.30