- What are electromagnetic fields?
- Static and low-frequency fields
- What are static and low-frequency fields?
- Direct and alternating voltage
- Effects of static and low-frequency fields
- Reports & Evaluations
- Radiation protection relating to the expansion of the national grid
- Basics transfer of electrical power
- High-frequency fields
- What are high-frequency fields?
- Applications high-frequency fields
- Radiation protection in mobile communication
- What is mobile communication?
- Reports and evaluations
- What is optical radiation?
- UV radiation
- What is UV radiation?
- Sun but safe!
- Effects of UV radiation
- Protection against UV radiation
- UV index
- Infrared radiation
- What is ionising radiation?
- Radioactivity in the environment
- Where does radioactivity occur in the environment?
- What is the level of natural radiation exposure in Germany?
- Air, soil and water
- Building materials
- Industrial residues (NORM)
- BfS laboratories
- Applications in medicine
- Applications in daily life and in technology
- Radioactive radiation sources in Germany
- Register high-level radioactive radiation sources
- Type approval procedure pursuant to RöV and StrlSchV
- Cabin luggage security checks
- Radioactive materials in watches
- Ionisation smoke detectors (ISM)
- What are the effects of radiation?
- Acute radiation damage
- Effects of selected radioactive materials
- Consequences of a radiation accident
- Cancer and leukaemia
- Genetic radiation effects
- Individual radiosensitivity
- Epidemiology of radiation-induced diseases
- Ionising radiation: positive effects?
- Risk estimation and assessment
- Radiation protection
- Basic informations
- Occupational radiation protection
- Nuclear accident management
- What happens in an emergency?
- Federal and state tasks
- In the event of an emergency
- Measuring networks
- Exercises for emergency situations
- Nuclear accidents
- Defence against nuclear hazards
- Service offers
- Radon measurements
- Incorporation monitoring
- Biological dosimetry
- About us
- Science and research
- Research concept
- Scientific collaborations
- EU research framework programme
- BfS research programme
- Third-party funded research
- Departmental research
- Selected research projects
- Selected research results
- Professional opinions
- Laws and regulations
- BfS Topics in the Bundestag
Laws, reports, studies, guidelines on the subject of NORM
The following offers a selection of further reading on the subject of "naturally occurring radioactive materials" (NORM). Alongside international guidelines and recommendations as well as legal regulations relating to NORM in Germany, investigation reports from research projects in the framework of the German Environmental Research Plan (UFOPLAN) can also be found here. Furthermore, we have included in the list of links references to measurement guidance for the monitoring of environmental radioactivity.
Investigation reports from research projects in the framework of UFOPLAN
- Hummrich, H., Schulz, H., Flesch, K., Gellermann, R. (2010):
"Freisetzbarkeit natürlicher Radionuklide aus überwachungsbedürftigen Rückständen mit dem Sickerwasser" (Likely release rates of natural radionuclides into seepage water from residues that require surveillance / Final report from research projects 3607S04552 and 3608S052/1, in German)
- disposal concept, in German)
Part 1: Historische Recherche zur Ermittlung der radiologischen Relevanz von NORM-Rückständen und Konzepte zur Standortidentifikation (Historical research into determining the radiological relevance of NORM residues and concepts for location identification, in German)
Part 2: Radiologische Bewertung von NORM-Rückständen (Radiological assessment of NORM residues, in German)
Part 3a: Bergbauliche Hinterlassenschaften der Steinkohle-Gewinnung (Mining legacies from black coal extraction, in German)
Part 3b: Industrielle Hinterlassenschaften der Rohphosphat-Verarbeitung (Industrial legacies from rock phosphate processing, in German)
Part 4a: Orientierende radiologische Untersuchungen an bergbaulichen Hinterlassenschaften der Steinkohle-Gewinnung (Exploratory radiological investigations into mining legacies from black coal extraction, in German)
Part 4b: Orientierende radiologische Untersuchungen an industriellen Hinterlassenschaften der Rohphosphat-Verarbeitung (Exploratory radiological investigations into industrial legacies from rock phosphate processing, in German)
Report I: Vorkommen und Entstehung von radiologisch relevanten Bodenkontaminationen aus bergbaulichen und industriellen Prozessen (The depositing and incidence of radiologically relevant soil contamination from mining and industrial processes, in German)
Report II: Bericht II: Untersuchung von Modellgebieten (Investigation of model areas, in German)
Legal principles in the subject of NORM
- Radiation Protection Act (in German)
- "Ordinance on the Protection against Damage and Injuries Caused by Ionising Radiation” (StrlSchV), (includes provisions for the protection of humans and the environment from natural radiation sources during work activities)
- "Bundes-Bodenschutz- und Altlastenverordnung" (BBodSchV) (Federal Soil Protection and Contaminated Sites Ordinance] (deals with protection from adverse alterations of soil and the rehabilitation of contaminated sites, in German)
- "Act to promote circular economy and safeguard the environmentally compatible management of waste” (KrWG)
International guidelines and recommendations
Basic standards from the European Union (EU):
“Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM of 5 December 2013 laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation, and repealing Directives 89/618/Euratom, 90/641/Euratom, 96/29/Euratom, 97/43/Euratom and 2003/122/Euratom”
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA):
Measurement guidance for the monitoring of environmental radioactivity
The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) has published "measurement guidelines" for the monitoring of natural environmental radioactivity. These guidelines are available to download from the website of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB).
To implement the Richtlinie zur Emissions- und Immissionsüberwachung bei bergbaulichen Tätigkeiten (REI Bergbau) (Guideline relating to emission and pollution monitoring of mining activities - REI Mining - in German), the "Central offices for radioactivity monitoring issues in areas of increased natural radioactivity" appointed by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) has compiled all relevant measurement processes and guidelines.
State of 2017.07.05