- What are electromagnetic fields?
- Static and low-frequency fields
- What are static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields?
- Direct and alternating voltage
- Effects of static and low-frequency fields
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- What are high-frequency fields?
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- What is optical radiation?
- UV radiation
- What is UV radiation?
- Sun but safe!
- Effects of UV radiation
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- UV index
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- What is ionising radiation?
- Radioactivity in the environment
- Where does radioactivity occur in the environment?
- What is the level of natural radiation exposure in Germany?
- Air, soil and water
- Building materials
- Industrial residues (NORM)
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- Radioactive radiation sources in Germany
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- Effects of selected radioactive materials
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- Cancer and leukaemia
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- Ionising radiation: positive effects?
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Where does radioactivity occur in the environment?
- Radionuclides are found everywhere in the environment.
- In principle, every individual on earth is naturally exposed to ionising radiation. Nobody can avoid it.
- It arises from naturally occurring sources present in nature, independent of human activity.
In principle, every individual on earth is naturally exposed to ionising radiation. Nobody can avoid it. It arises from naturally occurring sources present in nature, independent of human activity.
Natural radiation exposure
Natural radiation exposure comprises internal and external components. The internal component constitutes the main part of natural radiation exposure. It accounts for two thirds of the total natural radiation exposure, the external component for one third.
Internal radiation exposure
Through breathing air and eating food, people have always taken up natural radionuclides into the body. In addition, radionuclides can enter the body through open wounds.
Intake through breathing
The largest proportion of natural radiation exposure stems from inhaling the radioactive noble gas radon and its decay products. The radiation exposure from radon results in an average annual dose of 1.1 millisieverts.
Further information can be found in the section on radon.
Intake through food
Further information can be found in the section on radioactivity in foods.
External radiation exposure
External radiation exposure amounts to 0.7 millisievert per year.
A substantial part of the ionising radiation people are exposed to, originates from cosmic radiation. It reaches the earth from the sun and from deep space and is mainly composed of high energy particles and gamma radiation. On its way through the atmosphere, cosmic radiation is partially absorbed. Thus, the intensity of cosmic radiation depends on altitude. It is lowest at sea level and increases with the altitude of a site. On the Zugspitze it is four times higher than at the coast. Airplanes cannot be shielded against cosmic radiation. Thus, people are exposed to this type of radiation during a flight.
Terrestrial radiation is a further component of the external radiation exposure. It arises from natural radioactive materials present in soils and strata of the Earth's crust and differ vastly across different regions.
On average, the annual effective dose due to terrestrial radiation in Germany amounts to 0.4 millisievert, about 0.1 millisievert of which is attributed to the time spent outdoors and about 0.3 millisievert to the time spent indoors.
Radioactivity in building materials
Rocks and soils are important resources for mineral building materials, such as bricks and concrete. The radionuclides present in the rocks pass into the building materials and in this way add to the external radiation exposure.
Further information can be found in the section on building materials.
Natural radiation exposure in Germany
The total natural radiation exposure in Germany amounts to 2.1 millisieverts per year on average (effective dose). Depending on the place of residence, dietary and lifestyle habits, it ranges from 1 to 10 millisieverts.
Exposure due to artificial sources of radioactivity
Artificial radionuclides in the environment make you think of reactor disasters as they occurred in Chernobyl and in Fukushima. However, artificial radionuclides were also released during nuclear weapons tests. Small amounts of radionuclides are released from nuclear installations during normal operation as well. The release is strictly monitored by various measuring networks.
Further information can be found in the section on IMIS.
State of 2018.07.04