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Ionising radiation

Environmental Radioactivity - Medicine - Occupational Radiation Protection - Nuclear Hazards Defence

Ionisierende Strahlung

Emissions monitoring of nuclear facilities

Radioactive substances are emitted with the discharges from nuclear facilities. The Radiation Protection Ordinance therefore prescribes the continuous monitoring of these discharges by the operator to assess the amount of the released radioactive substances. Measurements by the operator are also checked on a random basis by an independent measuring instituion. The annual radiation exposure for the population is calculated from these annual discharges.

Sketch of a nuclear power plant

Monitoring the emission of radioactive substances from nuclear facilities

The discharges of radioactive substances from nuclear facilities (emission) through exhaust air and waste water are regularly and permanently monitored and assessed. The resultant radiation exposure of the population is calculated from this. In addition, the atomic licensing authorities stipulate maximum values for the discharges from nuclear facilities.

Calculation of radiation exposure

The radiation exposure to the population in the vicinity of every nuclear installation is calculated by means of the assessed discharges provided by the operator. The calculations relate to a reference person: a hypothetical individual, whose behaviour in regard to location and consumption habits results in the highest possible exposure to radiation.

exemplary analysis result of the interlaboratory of waste 2013

Verification of licencee's monitoring of radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants

For more than 30 years, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection and its predecessor authority respectively, have been verifying the reliability and quality of the licencee’s monitoring of radioactive effluents by power plant operators. Key instruments for quality assurance are a control measurement programme and interlaboratory comparisons. To this end, the BfS - in its capacity as an expert appointed by the competent supervisory authorities - performs control measurements.


The annual report to the German parliament on additional radiation exposure in the surrounding of nuclear facilities on the population caused by the artificial emission is obligatory since 1974. The radiation exposure is calculated by dispersion model ARTM (Atmospheric Radionuclide Transport Model) and Dose module for ARTM (DARTM). As necessary input parameters, ARTM uses time series of meteorological measurements as well as the emission data of radioactive substances from the exhaust stack.

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