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- Radiation doses exceeding a threshold of about 500 millisieverts (mSv) can cause tissue reactions (deterministic effects) in the human body.
- Acute radiation injuries occur within days and weeks after high radiation exposures.
- Some deterministic effects appear later like pulmonary fibrosis (6 to 24 months after exposure).
- Radiation below the threshold dose causes no acute effects. For stochastic effects, which are always late effects, no threshold can be specified.
Radiation doses exceeding a threshold of about 500 millisieverts (mSv) can cause tissue reactions in the human body, also called deterministic effects. They are the result of a massive cell killing and the subsequent loss of function of the affected organs or tissues. Particularly
- the skin,
- the hair, and
- the gastrointestinal epithelium
Acute radiation injuries
Acute radiation injuries are counted among deterministic radiation effects or tissue reactions. They occur shortly (within days and weeks) after high radiation exposures, for example after a nuclear accident. Acute radiation effects comprise among others:
- erythema (skin redness),
- hair loss,
- fertility impairment, and
Radiation below the threshold dose causes no acute effects. For stochastic effects, which are always late effects, no threshold can be specified.
Late deterministic effects
Usually, deterministic effects are acute effects. Still, there are some late deterministic effects like pulmonary fibrosis (increase in fibrous connective tissue leading to loss of pulmonary function). It appears 6 to 24 months after exposure.
State of 2017.01.30