- What are electromagnetic fields?
- Static and low-frequency fields
- What are static and low-frequency fields?
- Reports & Evaluations
- Radiation protection relating to the expansion of the national grid
- Basics transfer of electrical power
- High-frequency fields
- What are high-frequency fields?
- Applications high-frequency fields
- Radiation protection in mobile communication
- What is mobile communication?
- Reports and evaluations
- What is optical radiation?
- UV radiation
- What is UV radiation?
- Sun but safe!
- Effects of UV radiation
- Protection against UV radiation
- UV index
- Infrared radiation
- What is ionising radiation?
- Radioactivity in the environment
- Where does radioactivity occur in the environment?
- What is the level of natural radiation exposure in Germany?
- Air, soil and water
- Building materials
- Industrial residues (NORM)
- BfS laboratories
- Applications in medicine
- Applications in daily life and in technology
- Radioactive radiation sources in Germany
- Register high-level radioactive radiation sources
- Type approval procedure pursuant to RöV and StrlSchV
- Cabin luggage security checks
- Radioactive materials in watches
- Ionisation smoke detectors (ISM)
- What are the effects of radiation?
- Acute radiation damage
- Effects of selected radioactive materials
- Consequences of a radiation accident
- Cancer and leukaemia
- Genetic radiation effects
- Individual radiosensitivity
- Epidemiology of radiation-induced diseases
- Ionising radiation: positive effects?
- Risk estimation and assessment
- Radiation protection
- Basic informations
- Occupational radiation protection
- Nuclear accident management
- What happens in an emergency?
- Federal and state tasks
- In the event of an emergency
- Measuring networks
- Exercises for emergency situations
- Nuclear accidents
- Defence against nuclear hazards
- Service offers
- Radon measurements
- Incorporation monitoring
- Biological dosimetry
- About us
- Science and research
- Research concept
- Scientific collaborations
- EU research framework programme
- BfS research programme
- Third-party funded research
- Departmental research
- Selected research projects
- Selected research results
- Professional opinions
- Laws and regulations
- BfS Topics in the Bundestag
Decision support systems
In the event of an emergency it is vital to produce predictionsfor the radiological situation in a quick and comprehensible way. Within IMIS, two decision-support systems are available: PARK (short for "Program for the Estimation of Radiological Consequences") and RODOS (short for "Realtime Online Decision Support System"). With the help of these models, future environmental contaminations and the prospective doses can be estimated.
What do the models show?
PARK and RODOS reflect the behavior of radioactive substances in the environment, as well as the pathways of exposure to humans: the external exposure to humans from radiation resulting from a radioactive cloud and the activity deposited on the ground as well as the internal exposure from the incorporation of radionuclides by way of inhalation and ingestion (foodstuff incorporation). The German Weather Service (DWD) supports the BfS during these calculations by providing dispersion prognoses.
Results are displayed in maps showing the urgency of measures. These maps are based on comparisons of prognosticated expositions with the dose limits and/or emergency reference levels of the respective measures.
The picture on the left shows a map on the contamination of leaf vegetables with iodine-131. The European Union (EU) dose limit is 2,000 becquerel per kilogram. The colors (dark green to yellow) indicate that those values are below the EU emergency reference level. In the orange and purple areas, the contamination is higher than the dose limit. The areas displayed in dark green and dark purple are areas where the contamination is much higher respectively much lower than the dose limit.
A green map, for example, indicates that no measures are necessary (confer picture), whereas red shows that measures need to be taken. Pre-formatted maps exist for agricultural products, but also for measures like evacuation, sheltering (staying in the building), thyroid blocking (pharmaceutical use of iodine).
State of 2015.12.01