- What are electromagnetic fields?
- Static and low-frequency fields
- What are static and low-frequency fields?
- Direct and alternating voltage
- Effects of static and low-frequency fields
- Reports & Evaluations
- Radiation protection relating to the expansion of the national grid
- Basics transfer of electrical power
- High-frequency fields
- What are high-frequency fields?
- Applications high-frequency fields
- Radiation protection in mobile communication
- What is mobile communication?
- Reports and evaluations
- What is optical radiation?
- UV radiation
- What is UV radiation?
- Sun but safe!
- Effects of UV radiation
- Protection against UV radiation
- UV index
- Infrared radiation
- What is ionising radiation?
- Radioactivity in the environment
- Where does radioactivity occur in the environment?
- What is the level of natural radiation exposure in Germany?
- Air, soil and water
- Building materials
- Industrial residues (NORM)
- BfS laboratories
- Applications in medicine
- Applications in daily life and in technology
- Radioactive radiation sources in Germany
- Register high-level radioactive radiation sources
- Type approval procedure pursuant to RöV and StrlSchV
- Cabin luggage security checks
- Radioactive materials in watches
- Ionisation smoke detectors (ISM)
- What are the effects of radiation?
- Acute radiation damage
- Effects of selected radioactive materials
- Consequences of a radiation accident
- Cancer and leukaemia
- Genetic radiation effects
- Individual radiosensitivity
- Epidemiology of radiation-induced diseases
- Ionising radiation: positive effects?
- Risk estimation and assessment
- Radiation protection
- Basic informations
- Occupational radiation protection
- Nuclear accident management
- What happens in an emergency?
- Federal and state tasks
- In the event of an emergency
- Measuring networks
- Exercises for emergency situations
- Nuclear accidents
- Defence against nuclear hazards
- Service offers
- Radon measurements
- Incorporation monitoring
- Biological dosimetry
- About us
- Science and research
- Research concept
- Scientific collaborations
- EU research framework programme
- BfS research programme
- Third-party funded research
- Departmental research
- Selected research projects
- Selected research results
- Professional opinions
- Laws and regulations
- BfS Topics in the Bundestag
Specific Absorption Rates (SAR) for mobile phones
Mobile communication uses high frequency electromagnetic fields for information transmission. When talking to someone on a mobile phone, the energy of these fields is partly absorbed in the head.
If a headset is used and the mobile phone is, for example, put in one’s pocket, the energy is absorbed by the body part close to the mobile phone.
SAR must not exceed 2 Watts per kilogram
The specific absorption rate (SAR) is a measure for the energy absorbed by the body. Its measure is Watt per kilogram (W/kg). In order to avoid adverse health effects, the specific absorption rate of a mobile phone must not exceed 2 Watts per kilogram.
Since 1998 this value is recommended as a limit by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The German Commission on Radiological Protection (SSK) and the European Commission agreed in 1998 and 1999. In the following, European standardisation bodies developed standards to control compliance with these limits.
According to manufacturers’ specifications, none of the mobile phones currently available exceed the maximal SAR value of 2 Watts per kilogram recommended by ICNIRP.
SAR values of commercially available mobile phones at a glance
Since 2002, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) regularly collects the SAR values of the commercially available mobile phones.
The values are sorted according to manufacturers and compiled in a list. The list contains – if available – for each mobile phone the SAR values for the use cases
- "Holding the phone right next to the ear during a call"
- "Wearing the phone on the body ".
The manufacturers determine the SAR values according to the European standards EN 62209-1 (Use case "Holding the phone right next to the ear during a call") and EN 62209-2 (Use case "Wearing the phone on the body"), using exactly defined and standardised procedures. Therefore, the values for the respective use cases can be compared with each other.
State of 2017.10.06