- What are electromagnetic fields?
- Static and low-frequency fields
- What are static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields?
- Direct and alternating voltage
- Effects of static and low-frequency fields
- Reports & Evaluations
- Radiation protection relating to the expansion of the national grid
- Basics transfer of electrical power
- High-frequency fields
- What are high-frequency fields?
- Applications high-frequency fields
- Radiation protection in mobile communication
- What is mobile communication?
- Reports and evaluations
- What is optical radiation?
- UV radiation
- What is UV radiation?
- Sun but safe!
- Effects of UV radiation
- Protection against UV radiation
- UV index
- Infrared radiation
- What is ionising radiation?
- Radioactivity in the environment
- Where does radioactivity occur in the environment?
- What is the level of natural radiation exposure in Germany?
- Air, soil and water
- Building materials
- Industrial residues (NORM)
- BfS laboratories
- Applications in medicine
- Radiation protection in medicine: international activities
- Applications in daily life and in technology
- Radioactive radiation sources in Germany
- Register high-level radioactive radiation sources
- Type approval procedure pursuant to RöV and StrlSchV
- Cabin luggage security checks
- Radioactive materials in watches
- Ionisation smoke detectors (ISM)
- What are the effects of radiation?
- Effects of selected radioactive materials
- Consequences of a radiation accident
- Cancer and leukaemia
- Genetic radiation effects
- Individual radiosensitivity
- Epidemiology of radiation-induced diseases
- Ionising radiation: positive effects?
- Risk estimation and assessment
- Radiation protection
- Basic informations
- Occupational radiation protection
- Nuclear accident management
- What happens in an emergency?
- Federal and state tasks
- In the event of an emergency
- Measuring networks
- Exercises for emergency situations
- Nuclear accidents
- Defence against nuclear hazards
- Service offers
- Radon measurements
- Incorporation monitoring
- Biological dosimetry
- Online library
- About us
- Science and research
- Research concept
- Scientific collaborations
- EU research framework programme
- BfS research programme
- Third-party funded research
- Departmental research
- Selected research projects
- Selected research results
- Professional opinions
- Science Council
- Laws and regulations
- BfS Topics in the Bundestag
- According to current scientific knowledge, the protection of the health of the population is also ensured under permanent exposure by compliance with the limit values set in the Twenty-sixth Ordinance Implementing the Federal Immission Control Act (Ordinance on Electromagnetic Fields - 26th BlmSchV).
- In addition to the established health effects, there are scientific indications for health risks at low field strengths. In order to take these indications into account, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) calls for precautionary measures.
- Minimising public exposure can be achieved by various measures, the responsibility for which rests with authorities as well as building contractors or owners, appliance manufacturers and also with every citizen.
According to current scientific knowledge, the protection of the health of the population is also ensured under permanent exposure by compliance with the limit values set in the Twenty-sixth Ordinance Implementing the Federal Immission Control Act (Ordinance on Electromagnetic Fields - 26th BlmSchV).
Precautionary measures supplementing limit values
In addition to the established health effects, there are scientific indications for health risks at low field strengths. In order to take these indications into account, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) calls for precautionary measures:
- The low-frequency fields the population is exposed to, should be as low as possible.
- The population should be informed about the known and suspected effects of the fields and about the field intensities of the relevant field sources such as high-voltage lines or electrical appliances.
- Research is ongoing to clarify these scientific issues.
Ways to reduce exposure
Minimising public exposure can be achieved by various measures, the responsibility for which rests with authorities as well as building contractors or owners, appliance manufacturers and also with every citizen:
- When planning and permitting buildings, safe clearance distances should be ensured from high-voltage lines and other power supply installations.
- Optimised electrical installation wiring can reduce the exposure of building occupants. This includes proper insulation and flush mounting of the electrical installations.
- Appliance and plant manufacturers can achieve lowest possible field strengths in the vicinity of equipment and plants by means of appropriate technical design. Suitable labelling on the equipment would also be desirable to enable the consumers to look out for low field intensities when buying appliances.
All citizens can reduce their field exposure by following simple rules:
- by keeping the distance to field sources as large as possible,
- by keeping the duration of the exposure as short as possible and
- by turning off electrical appliances completely after use and not leaving them in standby mode. This applies especially to television sets and stereo systems.
Sufficient distance from field sources should also be kept at night
As nocturnal exposures are of a longer duration, particular attention should be paid to keeping sufficient distance from field sources for precautionary reasons. This applies, above all, to babies and toddlers.
Mains powered clock radios should therefore not be placed right next to the headboard of a bed. Sufficient distance between the baby monitor transmitter - the power supply unit in particular- and the child's crib should be ensured. If possible, the transmitter should be operated with rechargeable batteries, as low-frequency alternating fields do not occur in that case.
State of 2017.11.28