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Elektromagnetische Felder

Licence-free radio communications services and Amateur Radio Service

Licence-free radio communications services may be operated by the general public and are neither subject to notification, nor to any charges (personal radio services).

  • Citizens' Band (CB) Radio Service is a private, non-commercial radio application used for transmitting voice and data between users (CB Radio users).
  • PMR is the abbreviation for "Private Mobile Radio". This is a short-range radio application with handheld transceivers authorised for use by the general public.
  • Amateur Radio Service is a type of experimental radio communication, where devices and antennas are subject to frequent changes. Certain frequency bands, which are distributed across the entire high-frequency range, are authorised for Amateur Radio stations.

The Federal Network Agency has allocated fixed frequency ranges to licence-free radio communications services. In order to avoid interference, devices and stations have to meet certain requirements, for example in regard to modulation, band width and transmitter power.

CB Radio Service

CB Radio Service (CB: abbreviation for "Citizens' Band Radio") is a private, non-commercial radio application used for transmitting voice and data between users (CB Radio users) (see table Sources of High-Frequency Fields). The radio channels used are in the frequency range around 27 MHz (11 metre band). The transmitter powers, which are limited to a few watts, allow ranges of several kilometres.

Fixed radio equipment used for CB Radio may have to meet the requirements of the 26th Ordinance Implementing the Federal Immission Control Act (26th BImSchV) and those of the Ordinance concerning the Controls for the Limitation of Electromagnetic Fields (BEMFV). These requirements depend on the radiated power (EIRP) of the equipment and on other transmitters operated at the location.

In some border areas, fixed stations must not use certain CB Radio channels or may only use them after filing an application with the Federal Network Agency. This is to protect radio applications in neighbouring countries.

PMR

PMR is the abbreviation for "Private Mobile Radio". This is a short-range radio application with handheld transceivers authorised for use by the general public. The radio frequencies used are in the range around 446 MHz. Depending on ambient conditions, the range can extend as far as a few kilometres.

The maximum transmitter powers of PMR radios are comparable to those of mobile phones. When holding the device in front of one's face while speaking into it, similar SAR values may occur as with mobile phones. PMR radios with voice control are sometimes used as baby monitors or advertised as such. The BfS does not recommend using them as children's toys.

Other licence-free radio communication services anyone may use or operate, are WLAN, Bluetooth or Ultra-Wideband (UWB), for example.

Amateur Radio Service

Amateur Radio Service, in comparison, is a type of experimental radio communication, where devices and antennas are subject to frequent changes. Certain frequency bands, which are distributed across the entire high-frequency range, are authorised for Amateur Radio stations.

Radio amateurs have to be able to carry out necessary measurements and calculations in order to prove compliance with legal requirements. After proving their competence to the Federal Network Agency by passing the relevant exam (technical examination or Harmonised Amateur Radio Examination Certificate), they are authorised to operate Amateur Radio stations.

The Ordinance concerning the Controls for the Limitation of Electromagnetic Fields (BEMFV) stipulates that also fixed Amateur Radio equipment requires a site certificate under certain conditions. In accordance with Section 8 (1) BEMFV, this is the case if fixed radio equipment to which the regulations on site certificates in Section 4 BEMFV apply, has already been installed at the location intended for the equipment.

Fixed Amateur Radio equipment installed at a site with a total radiated power (EIRP) of ten watts or more may only be operated if the site-specific safety distance is within the area controllable by the operator of the equipment. This means that the operator may deny access to the area within the safety distance. Moreover, the operator of the equipment is required to have made the notification in accordance with Section 9. The operating data must not exceed the data provided with the notification or application and the health of individuals, including wearers of active medical implants, must not be impaired by the operation.

State of 2018.10.18

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