- What are electromagnetic fields?
- Static and low-frequency fields
- What are static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields?
- Direct and alternating voltage
- Effects of static and low-frequency fields
- Reports & Evaluations
- Radiation protection relating to the expansion of the national grid
- Basics transfer of electrical power
- High-frequency fields
- What are high-frequency fields?
- Applications high-frequency fields
- Radiation protection in mobile communication
- What is mobile communication?
- Reports and evaluations
- What is optical radiation?
- UV radiation
- What is UV radiation?
- Sun but safe!
- Effects of UV radiation
- Protection against UV radiation
- UV index
- Infrared radiation
- What is ionising radiation?
- Radioactivity in the environment
- Where does radioactivity occur in the environment?
- What is the level of natural radiation exposure in Germany?
- Air, soil and water
- Building materials
- Industrial residues (NORM)
- BfS laboratories
- Applications in medicine
- Radiation protection in medicine: international activities
- Applications in daily life and in technology
- Radioactive radiation sources in Germany
- Register high-level radioactive radiation sources
- Type approval procedure
- Cabin luggage security checks
- Radioactive materials in watches
- Ionisation smoke detectors (ISM)
- What are the effects of radiation?
- Effects of selected radioactive materials
- Consequences of a radiation accident
- Cancer and leukaemia
- Genetic radiation effects
- Individual radiosensitivity
- Epidemiology of radiation-induced diseases
- Ionising radiation: positive effects?
- Risk estimation and assessment
- Radiation protection
- Basic information
- Occupational radiation protection
- Nuclear accident management
- What is an emergency?
- What happens in an emergency?
- Federal and state tasks
- In the event of an emergency
- Measuring networks
- Exercises for emergency situations
- Defence against nuclear hazards
- Service offers
- Radon measurements
- Incorporation monitoring
- Biological dosimetry
- Online library
- About us
- Science and research
- Research concept
- Scientific collaborations
- EU research framework programme
- BfS research programme
- Third-party funded research
- Departmental research
- Selected research projects
- Selected research results
- Professional opinions
- Science Council
- Laws and regulations
- BfS Topics in the Bundestag
Electric and magnetic fields
When current flows, electrical appliances and wires generate two types of fields: electric and magnetic fields. An electric field is produced as soon as voltage is applied to an appliance or wire. Voltage is the prerequisite that enables current to flow when an appliance is switched on. When current flows, a magnetic field is produced in addition to the electric field. Thus, electrical appliances and wires, with current flowing through them, are surrounded by electric and magnetic fields.
Low-frequency electric and magnetic fields
Alternating current (AC) is mostly used for power supply. In Germany, AC has a frequency of 50 hertz (Hz). This means that the current alternates direction 100 times per second. The electric and magnetic fields alternate direction at the same rhythm as the current. As the frequency of 50 hertz is at the low-frequency end of the electromagnetic spectrum, these fields are referred to as "low-frequency" fields.
Field strengths and units of measurement
The strength of an electric field increases with the voltage applied to the wire. The unit of measurement for voltage is the volt (V). The electric field strength is expressed in volts per metre (V/m).
The strength of a magnetic field around an electric wire depends on the strength of the current flowing through it. Current is expressed in amperes (A), the strength of the magnetic field in amperes per metre (A/m).
Magnetic flux density is mostly used instead of the magnetic field strength, as it additionally takes into account the "magnetisability" of the material penetrated by the magnetic field. The unit of measurement is tesla (T) or microtesla (µT). One microtesla is one-millionth of a tesla (0.000001 T).
Electric Field Strength
|Field Strength||Flux Density|
|Units of Measurement|
volts per metre (V/m)
|amperes per metre (A/m)|
1 tesla = 1 volt-second per square metre
Electric and magnetic fields in everyday life
The electric field strengths and the magnetic flux densities of electrical household appliances and house wiring within normal working distance are usually low.
For some appliances higher magnetic flux densities are possible, however, in most cases only very close to the surface of the devices (such as electric shavers, hair dryers). Electric and magnetic fields fall quickly with increasing distance.
Distance and Shielding
In principle field strength decreases with increasing distance from the field source. Additionally electric fields are shielded, for example, by common building materials. By contrast, a relatively elaborate shielding is required for magnetic fields.
State of 2018.11.08