- What are electromagnetic fields?
- Static and low-frequency fields
- What are static and low-frequency fields?
- Reports & Evaluations
- Radiation protection relating to the expansion of the national grid
- Basics transfer of electrical power
- High-frequency fields
- What are high-frequency fields?
- Applications high-frequency fields
- Radiation protection in mobile communication
- What is mobile communication?
- Reports and evaluations
- What is optical radiation?
- UV radiation
- What is UV radiation?
- Sun but safe!
- Effects of UV radiation
- Protection against UV radiation
- UV index
- Infrared radiation
- What is ionising radiation?
- Radioactivity in the environment
- Where does radioactivity occur in the environment?
- What is the level of natural radiation exposure in Germany?
- Air, soil and water
- Building materials
- Industrial residues (NORM)
- BfS laboratories
- Applications in medicine
- Applications in daily life and in technology
- Radioactive radiation sources in Germany
- Register high-level radioactive radiation sources
- Type approval procedure pursuant to RöV and StrlSchV
- Cabin luggage security checks
- Radioactive materials in watches
- Ionisation smoke detectors (ISM)
- What are the effects of radiation?
- Acute radiation damage
- Effects of selected radioactive materials
- Consequences of a radiation accident
- Cancer and leukaemia
- Genetic radiation effects
- Individual radiosensitivity
- Epidemiology of radiation-induced diseases
- Ionising radiation: positive effects?
- Risk estimation and assessment
- Radiation protection
- Basic informations
- Occupational radiation protection
- Nuclear accident management
- What happens in an emergency?
- Federal and state tasks
- In the event of an emergency
- Measuring networks
- Exercises for emergency situations
- Nuclear accidents
- Defence against nuclear hazards
- Service offers
- Radon measurements
- Incorporation monitoring
- Biological dosimetry
- About us
- Science and research
- Research concept
- Scientific collaborations
- EU research framework programme
- BfS research programme
- Third-party funded research
- Departmental research
- Selected research projects
- Selected research results
- Professional opinions
- Laws and regulations
- BfS Topics in the Bundestag
Federal Republic of Germany, represented by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety, who again is represented by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Willy-Brandt-Straße 5, 38226 Salzgitter, Germany
Responsible for the content
Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz (Federal Office for Radiation Protection, BfS)
Web Editorial Manager
Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz
Federal Office for Radiation Protection
Phone: +49 (0) 3018 333-0
Fax: +49 (0) 3018 333-1885
homepage: Federal Office for Radiation Protection
The BfS websites, which can be accessed via www.bfs.de, are made available to the public in order to offer information on the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) and to provide a comprehensive overview of BfS’ activities, plans and projects. Particular attention is paid to the accuracy, completeness, currentness, comprehensibility and continuous availability of the information provided.
However, the above provision is subject to the following restrictions:
Contents provided by third parties
These pages include direct and indirect references and links to contents of internet pages provided by third parties ("foreign contents"). Said references and links have been created to the best of our knowledge and with the utmost accuracy and provide access to such "foreign contents". BfS has paid special attention to the reliability of such third party providers as well as to the accuracy and legality of such "foreign contents".
However, as the content of internet pages may be altered at any time, it is neither possible to continuously verify such “foreign contents” in each case nor is it reasonable as long as there is no concrete evidence of infringements. BfS
- does expressly not adopt "foreign contents",
- does not have any influence on the current and future design and contents of the linked pages and
- distances itself expressly from any "foreign contents" which might be relevant with respect to criminal law or liability law or that infringe public policy.
In the event that infringements are suspected, the relevant “foreign contents” will be examined immediately. In the event that infringements are identified, such external links will be deleted immediately. Solely the provider of the page referred to shall be liable for damage resulting from the usage or non-usage of "foreign contents".
Contents provided by BfS
As far as the contents provided on these pages contain legal provisions, official notices, recommendations, or other types of advice, such information has been created to the best of our knowledge and with the utmost accuracy. In case of discrepancies, however, solely the current official version as published in the official publication medium shall apply. Possible legal references, recommendations, and other types of information are not binding; BfS does not provide legal advice.
The following limitation of liability shall apply to the information provided:
- Users may access and use these pages at their own risk. BfS shall not be liable for the accuracy, completeness, currentness, comprehensibility and continuous availability of the contents provided. Bylined articles express the author’s opinion and are not necessarily in line with the publisher’s opinion.
- Insofar as legally permissible, BfS shall not be liable for material or immaterial damage resulting from the usage or non-usage of information offered and/or from the usage of faulty, incomplete, out of date and/or incomprehensible information. BfS expressly reserves the right to alter, supplement or delete parts of these pages or the entire websites without prior notice or to discontinue the publication temporarily or finally.
- The mere usage of these pages shall not constitute a contractual relationship between BfS and the user. Insofar as legally permissible, the publisher shall not be liable for possible damage caused by computer viruses contained in the data accessed on or downloaded from these pages or by the installation or usage of software.
BfS strives to respect the copyright to any images, audio and video clips and texts used in all publications, to use images, audio and video clips and texts created by BfS or to use public domain images, audio and video clips and texts.
The contents published on these pages shall be subject to German copyright and ancillary copyright law. Brand labels and trademarks possibly registered by third parties shall be subject to the provisions of the relevant trademark law and the rights of ownership of the registered owner. The mere mention of a trademark does not imply that such trademark is not subject to third parties’ rights.
If not stated otherwise, BfS shall be the holder of the copyright to texts, pictures, images, and other contents. The BfS also uses royalty-free pictures and charts from the Pixabay image data-base that have been published under Creative Commons CCO in the public domain.
Any usage not admitted by German copyright and ancillary copyright law or by the relevant trademark law shall only be permissible if BfS or the holder of the rights has expressly given its prior written consent. This applies in particular to any duplication, adaptation, translation, saving, processing, replay of contents in databases or other electronic media and systems as well as to electronic usage. The illegal usage of single contents or complete pages is not permitted and shall be subject to legal action.
The presentation of these pages in foreign frames (part of an HTML page) is only permitted if BfS has expressly given its prior written consent.
Legal effectiveness of this disclaimer
If parts or particular phrases of this text should cease in part or in whole to correspond to applicable law, the contents and the validity of the other parts of this document shall not be affected.
Note on access to electronic communication pursuant to § 3a para. 1 Administrative Procedure Act
Regarding the transfer of electronic documents, even if they have been provided with a qualified electronic signature, the access to this federal authority's electronic communication is only declared for the email address ePost@bfs.de pursuant to § 3a para. 1 Administrative Procedure Act.
State of 2017.09.20