- What are electromagnetic fields?
- Static and low-frequency fields
- What are static and low-frequency fields?
- Direct and alternating voltage
- Effects of static and low-frequency fields
- Reports & Evaluations
- Radiation protection relating to the expansion of the national grid
- Basics transfer of electrical power
- High-frequency fields
- What are high-frequency fields?
- Applications high-frequency fields
- Radiation protection in mobile communication
- What is mobile communication?
- Reports and evaluations
- What is optical radiation?
- UV radiation
- What is UV radiation?
- Sun but safe!
- Effects of UV radiation
- Protection against UV radiation
- UV index
- Infrared radiation
- What is ionising radiation?
- Radioactivity in the environment
- Where does radioactivity occur in the environment?
- What is the level of natural radiation exposure in Germany?
- Air, soil and water
- Building materials
- Industrial residues (NORM)
- BfS laboratories
- Applications in medicine
- Applications in daily life and in technology
- Radioactive radiation sources in Germany
- Register high-level radioactive radiation sources
- Type approval procedure pursuant to RöV and StrlSchV
- Cabin luggage security checks
- Radioactive materials in watches
- Ionisation smoke detectors (ISM)
- What are the effects of radiation?
- Acute radiation damage
- Effects of selected radioactive materials
- Consequences of a radiation accident
- Cancer and leukaemia
- Genetic radiation effects
- Individual radiosensitivity
- Epidemiology of radiation-induced diseases
- Ionising radiation: positive effects?
- Risk estimation and assessment
- Radiation protection
- Basic informations
- Occupational radiation protection
- Nuclear accident management
- What happens in an emergency?
- Federal and state tasks
- In the event of an emergency
- Measuring networks
- Exercises for emergency situations
- Nuclear accidents
- Defence against nuclear hazards
- Service offers
- Radon measurements
- Incorporation monitoring
- Biological dosimetry
- About us
- Science and research
- Research concept
- Scientific collaborations
- EU research framework programme
- BfS research programme
- Third-party funded research
- Departmental research
- Selected research projects
- Selected research results
- Professional opinions
- Laws and regulations
- BfS Topics in the Bundestag
Wash bottle show / hide
Wash bottles are laboratory devices that are included in a gas flow (e.g. in the branch of an exhaust air flow from a mine). Through an immersion tube (similar to a straw dipped into a liquid) the gas is forced to run through a liquid contained in the bottle before it leaves the bottle again. Thus it is possible to examine the composition of gases: Gases soluble in the liquid and entrapped airborne particles (aerosols) remain in the liquid and can be determined subsequently.
Washoutshow / hide
Aerosols washed out by rain.
Waste acceptance requirementsshow / hide
Determined requirements on waste packages to be disposed of, taking into account site-specific conditions.
Waste containershow / hide
Containers such as drums, flasks, containers, drums, concrete casks or casting vessels, in which the waste products are stores. For the Konrad repository, drums have to be packed in containers.
Waste container classificationshow / hide
Comprises waste containers with comparable release behaviour of radioactive materials.
Waste data sheetshow / hide
Data sheet containing repository relevant data on waste packages.
Waste drumsshow / hide
Collective term for drums containing waste.
waste formshow / hide
Processed radioactive waste without packaging or unprocessed radioactive waste placed into a container.
Waste matrixshow / hide
Hardened immobilisation material in which radioactive waste is immobilised.
Waste packageshow / hide
Collective term for waste products and packaging.
Waste package quality controlshow / hide
Proof that waste packages are in compliance with waste acceptance requirements.
Waste product groupshow / hide
Waste products with comparable release behaviour of radioactive materials.
Waste typeshow / hide
Type of primary radioactive waste accruing (such as combustible, solid materials, scrap, ion-exchange resins)
Waste watershow / hide
Water from the facility intended for discharge of which has been discharged.
Wavelengthshow / hide
The wavelength is the distance of neighbouring oscillation states of the same phase in the direction of propagation, e.g. between two wave crests following upon each other. Wavelength and frequency are connected to each other.
The measure of wavelength is metre (m):
1 millimeter (mm) = 1/1000 m
1 mikrometer (µm) = 1/1000 mm
1 nanometer (nm) = 1/1000 µm
Whole-body countershow / hide
- a couch or a chair the person to be examined is lying or sitting on during the measurement,
- one or several detectors to measure the gamma radiation emanating the measured person's body during the measurement, and
- a suitable shielding of the measuring instrument against environmental radiation.
Older devices use sodium iodide detectors. Instead of these, highpure germanium detectors are used increasingly, the latter having a significantly higher energy resolution (the higher the energy resolution, the better the various measured radionuclides can be distinguished from each other).
Whole-body doseshow / hide
Wipe testshow / hide
The wipe test is carried out by a sample manipulator using a wipe test monitor. Wipes are used to measure the alpha and beta surface contamination.
Wismut studyshow / hide
Working faceshow / hide
1. Target surface for production.
2. The lateral boundary surface of a mine opening.
Working Level Month (WLM) show / hide
The unit Working Level Month (WLM) is frequently used in the risk assessment of occupational radon exposure instead of a calculated dose in Millisievert. The advantage is, that the concentration can be measured directly. No further assumptions for the dose distribution in the body are necessary. To calculate the cumulative exposure to radon in WLM, the measured alpha energy concentration (unit: Working Level (WL)) in one litre air is multiplied by the time the miner has worked in this surrounding. 1 WLM equals an exposure of 1 WL (1.3 * 105 Megaelectron-volt (MeV) potential alpha energy per litre air) over 170 working hours (monthly working time), or a half WL over 2 months (340 working hours), respectively.
Working placeshow / hide
Working place in underground operation where mining works are carried out, such as heading, mining, tipple, etc.
work-overshow / hide
Rehabilitation of existing but collapsed or stowed mine openings.
Worst-case scenarios show / hide
The worst case, corresponds to the concurrence of the most unfavourable conditions occurring in reality.