- What are electromagnetic fields?
- Static and low-frequency fields
- What are static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields?
- Direct and alternating voltage
- Effects of static and low-frequency fields
- Reports & Evaluations
- Radiation protection relating to the expansion of the national grid
- Basics transfer of electrical power
- High-frequency fields
- What are high-frequency fields?
- Applications high-frequency fields
- Radiation protection in mobile communication
- What is mobile communication?
- Reports and evaluations
- What is optical radiation?
- UV radiation
- What is UV radiation?
- Sun but safe!
- Effects of UV radiation
- Protection against UV radiation
- UV index
- Infrared radiation
- What is ionising radiation?
- Radioactivity in the environment
- Where does radioactivity occur in the environment?
- What is the level of natural radiation exposure in Germany?
- Air, soil and water
- Building materials
- Industrial residues (NORM)
- BfS laboratories
- Applications in medicine
- Radiation protection in medicine: international activities
- Applications in daily life and in technology
- Radioactive radiation sources in Germany
- Register high-level radioactive radiation sources
- Type approval procedure pursuant to RöV and StrlSchV
- Cabin luggage security checks
- Radioactive materials in watches
- Ionisation smoke detectors (ISM)
- What are the effects of radiation?
- Effects of selected radioactive materials
- Consequences of a radiation accident
- Cancer and leukaemia
- Genetic radiation effects
- Individual radiosensitivity
- Epidemiology of radiation-induced diseases
- Ionising radiation: positive effects?
- Risk estimation and assessment
- Radiation protection
- Basic informations
- Occupational radiation protection
- Nuclear accident management
- What is an emergency?
- What happens in an emergency?
- Federal and state tasks
- In the event of an emergency
- Measuring networks
- Exercises for emergency situations
- Defence against nuclear hazards
- Service offers
- Radon measurements
- Incorporation monitoring
- Biological dosimetry
- Online library
- About us
- Science and research
- Research concept
- Scientific collaborations
- EU research framework programme
- BfS research programme
- Third-party funded research
- Departmental research
- Selected research projects
- Selected research results
- Professional opinions
- Science Council
- Laws and regulations
- BfS Topics in the Bundestag
Environmental research plan (UFOPLAN) show / hide
The need for research resulting from the departmental tasks of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety is annually determined in an environmental research plan (Umweltforschungsplan, UFOPLAN).
Underlying stratumshow / hide
Rock underlying a reference layer.
UniversalMobile Telecommunication System (UMTS)show / hide
Mobile telecommunication system of the so-called "third generation" which, in addition to language transmissions, admits image and video transmission due to high transmission rates. From 2003 on, UMTS is supposed to use frequencies between 1920 and 1980 MHz and between 2110 and 2170 MHz.
Unload chambershow / hide
Transfer chamber between transport vehicle and stacking truck.
Uranium show / hide
Natural radioactive element. Naturally occurring isotopes are the fissile uranium-235, uranium-238 which cannot be split with thermal neutrons, and uranium-234.
Uranium enrichment show / hide
Physical procedure with which the percentage of the fissile isotope Uranium-235 (U-235) can be increased beyond the content of 0.72 % of natural uranium. In the Federal Republic of Germany a uranium enrichment plant is operated for this purpose by URENCO Deutschland GmbH in Gronau where uranium - in the form of the volatile chemical compound uranium hexafluoride (UF6) - is enriched with the help of a gas centrifugal system on a large technical scale.
Uranium ore mining show / hide
Right after the end of World War II the Wismut company started to win uranium in Saxony and Thuringia. Uranium mining which had in particular in the initial years been carried out regardless of man and the environment has led to massive damage caused to the environment.
UV indexshow / hide
The UV index describes the daily peak value of the sunburn effective UV radiation expected at the ground. The population has thus the possibility to ask for information relating to the danger of solar UV radiation at the Federal Office for Radiation Protection.