- What are electromagnetic fields?
- Static and low-frequency fields
- What are static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields?
- Direct and alternating voltage
- Effects of static and low-frequency fields
- Reports & Evaluations
- Radiation protection relating to the expansion of the national grid
- Basics transfer of electrical power
- High-frequency fields
- What are high-frequency fields?
- Applications high-frequency fields
- Radiation protection in mobile communication
- What is mobile communication?
- Reports and evaluations
- What is optical radiation?
- UV radiation
- What is UV radiation?
- Sun but safe!
- Effects of UV radiation
- Protection against UV radiation
- UV index
- Infrared radiation
- What is ionising radiation?
- Radioactivity in the environment
- Where does radioactivity occur in the environment?
- What is the level of natural radiation exposure in Germany?
- Air, soil and water
- Building materials
- Industrial residues (NORM)
- BfS laboratories
- Applications in medicine
- Radiation protection in medicine: international activities
- Applications in daily life and in technology
- Radioactive radiation sources in Germany
- Register high-level radioactive radiation sources
- Type approval procedure
- Cabin luggage security checks
- Radioactive materials in watches
- Ionisation smoke detectors (ISM)
- What are the effects of radiation?
- Effects of selected radioactive materials
- Consequences of a radiation accident
- Cancer and leukaemia
- Genetic radiation effects
- Individual radiosensitivity
- Epidemiology of radiation-induced diseases
- Ionising radiation: positive effects?
- Risk estimation and assessment
- Radiation protection
- Basic information
- Occupational radiation protection
- Nuclear accident management
- What is an emergency?
- What happens in an emergency?
- Federal and state tasks
- In the event of an emergency
- Measuring networks
- Exercises for emergency situations
- Defence against nuclear hazards
- Service offers
- Radon measurements
- Incorporation monitoring
- Biological dosimetry
- Online library
- About us
- Science and research
- Research concept
- Scientific collaborations
- EU research framework programme
- BfS research programme
- Third-party funded research
- Departmental research
- Selected research projects
- Selected research results
- Professional opinions
- Science Council
- Laws and regulations
- BfS Topics in the Bundestag
'Tiefenaufschluss' show / hide
Area below the 800-m level in the Asse mine.
Tectonicsshow / hide
Science of the structure of the earth’s crust and the movements of the single crust parts.
Teletherapy show / hide
Treatment of diseases by irradiation of the body from outside.
Temelinshow / hide
Nuclear power plant in the South Bohemian Temelin, Czech Republic. The existence of the NPP is questionable from the point of view of safety and economy and is accompanied by a transboundary environmental impact assessment (EIA).
Temporary storage facility show / hide
Installations where spent fuel elements are stored so long on the site of a nuclear power plant in suitable transport and storage containers until a decentralised interim storage facility is available, at maximum for 6 to 8 years, however.
Teratogenic show / hide
Damaging the fruit, causes deformities of the seedling due to chemical and physical agents.
Terminal points (hard, weak) show / hide
Types of diseases investigated in epidemiological studies. Among the "hard" terminal points are e. g. overall mortality rate, selected causes of death, cancer diseases, etc. while "weak" terminal points are diseases such as headaches, sensitivities disturbances, etc..
Terrestrialshow / hide
Term for all processes, powers and forms existing on solid land.
Terrestrial radiation show / hide
Radiation emanating from natural radionuclides and their decay products available in the soils and rocks of the earth's crust.
Tesla show / hide
Tesla is the unit of magnetic flux density.
TETRA show / hide
Terrestrial Trunked Radio. European radio standard. TETRA is used for the Digital Radio of Security Authorities and Organisations at frequencies between 380 and 395 MHz.
Thermoluminescence dosimeter show / hide
Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) can be used to detect ionising radiation (radioactivity). Thermoluminescence describes the capability of a material to emit the previously stored energy in the form of light when the material is heated. The level of ionising radiation is determined by evaluating the quantity of emitted light. This is directly proportional to the energy taken up originally.
Threshold value show / hide
Damage occurs only when a minimum dose is exceeded.
Thyratron show / hide
Gas-filled switch duct similar to an amplifier duct (triode) whose main discharge is initiated by a grid-like electrode. These ducts are used for the impulse modulation of magnetrons and other oscillators and as quick electronic switches. Larger structural forms serve for engine management systems, controlled rectifiers or to handle more efficient switches.
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)show / hide
Procedure which enables within the scope of digital telecommunication to transfer several calls simultaneously on one transmitting frequency. Each call is assigned one time division in which the temporally distributed transmitting signals (digitised and compressed language "packages") are transmitted. In the GSM system, for instance, 8 time divisions of 577 µs each are used to transmit up to 8 talks simultaneously.
Top of salt dome show / hide
Top of salt dome is a horizontal surface above salt deposits or salt domes generated by "leaching". Mostly a so-called cap rock is situated on the top of salt dome consisting of the hardly soluble components of the leached off salt.
Total activityshow / hide
Number of decays per time unit occurring in the radioactive waste.
Track haulage deviceshow / hide
Device for moving the platform lorries, arranged between the tracks.
Transfer hallshow / hide
Hall in which the transport units are taken from railway wagons and lorries or respectively the exchange pallets are returned to the wagons or lorries.
Transgressionshow / hide
Assaults from the sea over large areas of the mainland.
Transmitting power show / hide
Electrical power emitted from an antenna.
Transport licenses show / hide
With respect to nuclear transports, transport licences are granted by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection if the legal prerequisites are complied with, in particular the precaution against damage according to the state-of-the-art of science and technology.
Transport palletshow / hide
Reusable device to transport cylindrical waste packages.
Transport unitsshow / hide
Unit consisting of certain container types and exchange pallets with waste packages.
Transport vehicleshow / hide
All-wheel drive vehicle, not rail-borne.
Treatment processshow / hide
Conditioning radioactive waste means treating it in a special manner with the help of special procedures, such as crushing, packaging, drying, combusting, melting or cementing. The end product may then be disposed of in Konrad if it is in compliance with the Konrad waste acceptance requirements. These waste packages are especially permitted for Konrad but for no other repository.
Tritium show / hide
Radioactive isotope of hydrogen with 2 neutrons and 1 proton in the nucleus, forming the decay products helium-3 and emitting beta radiation during decay, physical half-life ca. 12.3 years, effective half-life when taken up once ca. 10 days. Tritium can replace hydrogen in all metabolic processes, no enrichment over the food chain.