- What are electromagnetic fields?
- Static and low-frequency fields
- What are static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields?
- Direct and alternating voltage
- Effects of static and low-frequency fields
- Reports & Evaluations
- Radiation protection relating to the expansion of the national grid
- Basics transfer of electrical power
- High-frequency fields
- What are high-frequency fields?
- Applications high-frequency fields
- Radiation protection in mobile communication
- What is mobile communication?
- Reports and evaluations
- What is optical radiation?
- UV radiation
- What is UV radiation?
- Sun but safe!
- Effects of UV radiation
- Protection against UV radiation
- UV index
- Infrared radiation
- What is ionising radiation?
- Radioactivity in the environment
- Where does radioactivity occur in the environment?
- What is the level of natural radiation exposure in Germany?
- Air, soil and water
- Building materials
- Industrial residues (NORM)
- BfS laboratories
- Applications in medicine
- Applications in daily life and in technology
- Radioactive radiation sources in Germany
- Register high-level radioactive radiation sources
- Type approval procedure pursuant to RöV and StrlSchV
- Cabin luggage security checks
- Radioactive materials in watches
- Ionisation smoke detectors (ISM)
- What are the effects of radiation?
- Acute radiation damage
- Effects of selected radioactive materials
- Consequences of a radiation accident
- Cancer and leukaemia
- Genetic radiation effects
- Individual radiosensitivity
- Epidemiology of radiation-induced diseases
- Ionising radiation: positive effects?
- Risk estimation and assessment
- Radiation protection
- Basic informations
- Occupational radiation protection
- Nuclear accident management
- What happens in an emergency?
- Federal and state tasks
- In the event of an emergency
- Measuring networks
- Exercises for emergency situations
- Nuclear accidents
- Defence against nuclear hazards
- Service offers
- Radon measurements
- Incorporation monitoring
- Biological dosimetry
- Online library
- About us
- Science and research
- Research concept
- Scientific collaborations
- EU research framework programme
- BfS research programme
- Third-party funded research
- Departmental research
- Selected research projects
- Selected research results
- Professional opinions
- Laws and regulations
- BfS Topics in the Bundestag
Magnesium chlorideshow / hide
Magnesium salt, chemical formula MgCl2.
Magnesium depotshow / hide
Brucite-containing (Mg(OH)2) material favourably influencing the development of the chemical ambience in the emplacement areas.
Magnetic fieldshow / hide
State of the space which manifests itself in force action on magnetic dipoles (magnetic needles). Force field caused among others by moved electric charges. Magnetic fields occur in the vicinity of conductors flown through by current and permanent magnets. In the case of permanent magnets fluxes inside the atom of the moving electrons are the cause of the magnetic field. The magnetic field strength H marks strength and direction of the magnetic field, its measure is Ampere per metre (A/m). Besides the magnetic field strength also the magnetic flux density B describes the strength of the magnetic field, the measure is Tesla (T). 1 T = 1 Vs/m², the measure Microtesla (µT) is common. The following applies to the conversion of magnetic flux density into magnetic field intensity in the air or in biological tissue: 1 µT corresponds to 0.8 A/m.
Magnetic field strength show / hide
Measure of the strength and direction of the magnetic field. The measure is Ampere per metre (A/m).
Magnetic flux density show / hide
Quantity describing the induction effect of the magnetic field, the measure is Tesla (T). Magnetic flux density and magnetic field strength are connected through permeability µ (a material constant).
Magnetic induction show / hide
Magnetic flux density, measure of the number of magnetic field lines per area. The measure is Tesla (T). 1 T = 1 Vs/m² (Volt second per square metre).
Magnitudeshow / hide
Logarithmic measure of the seismic wave energy released by an earthquake. It is derived from seismic registrations.
Main pit ventilation systemshow / hide
Supplies the mine shafts with fresh air by creating an artificial air flow.
Main roadshow / hide
Gallery driven, following the strike of the deposit.
Malmshow / hide
A term for the Upper Jurassic Age (White Jurassic) ca. 156 to 140 million years ago.
Man haulageshow / hide
Transportation of persons in the shaft with the help of the shaft hoisting equipment.
Mean value show / hide
The mean value (arithmetical) corresponds to the sum of all values of a variable X divided by the number n of the values.
Median show / hide
The median is the value which divides the distribution of a variable X exactly in two halves, therefore also the alternative term central value.
Meta studies show / hide
Studies where the results of different investigations on a certain topic are compared, summarised and evaluated according to certain parameters.
Migrationshow / hide
Movement of water, solutions, oil and gas through porous and permeable rocks and rock layers.
Millimeter waves show / hide
Millimeter waves belong to the extremely high frequency band of electromagnetic radiation with frequencies from 30 to 300 gigahertz (GHz) and wavelengths between 10 millimeter and 1 millimeter.
Mine airshow / hide
Air in the mine, drawn off because of its reduced oxygen content or respectively its content of harmful gases.
Mine openingshow / hide
Planned cavity underground produced by mining measures.
Mine openingsshow / hide
Generic term for all cavities underground in a mine produced by mining measures.
mine surveyshow / hide
Surveying in mining.
mining districtshow / hide
Cavity methodically produced through mining where no radioactive waste is emplaced.
Mining fieldshow / hide
Area below the surface of the earth where a mineral deposit is mined.
mixing liquidshow / hide
Liquid for the production of building materials.
Moderator show / hide
In a nuclear reactor, a moderator serves to slow free neutrons produced in the reactor core during the fission process. Similar to billiard balls, neutrons collide with the nuclei of the moderator and thus give off part of their kinetic energy. Since the largest energy transfers occur in the elastic collisions of two equally heavy particles, light atoms such as hydrogen (in the form of water or polyethylene) and carbon (in the form of graphite) are mostly used as moderator. The slowed neutrons are better suitable for both continuing the fission in the reactor core and carrying out scientific experiments in a research reactor.
Modulationshow / hide
Change of one or more parameters of a high-frequency carrier wave for the transmittance of information. E. g. in radio programmes (carrier in the MHz range) language (kHz-range) is transmitted by frequency modulation by changing the frequency of the carrier wave in the rhythm of the language signal. Other procedures are amplitude (medium wave) modulation, frequency (UKW) modulation or phase (beam radio) modulation.
Molecular biology show / hide
Molecular biology is an interdisciplinary science dealing with the molecular structures and functions in living organisms.
Moleculeshow / hide
A molecule is a group of atoms held together by chemical bonds. A molecule can consist of several atoms of the same chemical element or atoms of different elements.
The hydrogen molecule consists of atoms of the same chemical element: H2 = 2 hydrogen atoms (H: chemical symbol for hydrogen).
The water molecule, in contrast, consists of atoms of different chemical elements: H2O = 2 hydrogen atoms + 1 oxygen atom (O: chemical symbol for oxygen).
monitored areasshow / hide
Areas where persons can receive per calendar year an effective dose above 1 mSv or organ doses above 15 mSv for the eye lens or 50 mSv for the skin, hands, forearms, feet, and ankles.
Monochloride show / hide
Monomere show / hide
Monomers are in the strict sense single molecules.
- Chemistry: The organic chemist understands monomers to be molecules with a reactive double bond or with functional groups. These can react with each other to long chain molecules, the polymers.
- Biochemistry: In the case of proteins (white of egg) the term "monomer" means the existence of a single subunit. Some proteins are composed of several monomers.
Morbidity show / hide
Incidence, number of diseases within a population
Mortality show / hide
Myokardszintigraphie show / hide
Nuclear medical examination of the heart (Myocardium = heart muscle) for the evaluation of the myocardial circulation and ventricular function of the heart.