- What are electromagnetic fields?
- Static and low-frequency fields
- What are static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields?
- Direct and alternating voltage
- Effects of static and low-frequency fields
- Reports & Evaluations
- Radiation protection relating to the expansion of the national grid
- Basics transfer of electrical power
- High-frequency fields
- What are high-frequency fields?
- Applications high-frequency fields
- Radiation protection in mobile communication
- What is mobile communication?
- Reports and evaluations
- What is optical radiation?
- UV radiation
- What is UV radiation?
- Sun but safe!
- Effects of UV radiation
- Protection against UV radiation
- UV index
- Infrared radiation
- What is ionising radiation?
- Radioactivity in the environment
- Where does radioactivity occur in the environment?
- What is the level of natural radiation exposure in Germany?
- Air, soil and water
- Building materials
- Industrial residues (NORM)
- BfS laboratories
- Applications in medicine
- Radiation protection in medicine: international activities
- Applications in daily life and in technology
- Radioactive radiation sources in Germany
- Register high-level radioactive radiation sources
- Type approval procedure pursuant to RöV and StrlSchV
- Cabin luggage security checks
- Radioactive materials in watches
- Ionisation smoke detectors (ISM)
- What are the effects of radiation?
- Acute radiation damage
- Effects of selected radioactive materials
- Consequences of a radiation accident
- Cancer and leukaemia
- Genetic radiation effects
- Individual radiosensitivity
- Epidemiology of radiation-induced diseases
- Ionising radiation: positive effects?
- Risk estimation and assessment
- Radiation protection
- Basic informations
- Occupational radiation protection
- Nuclear accident management
- What happens in an emergency?
- Federal and state tasks
- In the event of an emergency
- Measuring networks
- Exercises for emergency situations
- Nuclear accidents
- Defence against nuclear hazards
- Service offers
- Radon measurements
- Incorporation monitoring
- Biological dosimetry
- Online library
- About us
- Science and research
- Research concept
- Scientific collaborations
- EU research framework programme
- BfS research programme
- Third-party funded research
- Departmental research
- Selected research projects
- Selected research results
- Professional opinions
- Laws and regulations
- BfS Topics in the Bundestag
Large bore holeshow / hide
Bore hole of a diameter > 65 mm, produced with a twist drill.
Latency period show / hide
Time elapsed between exposure to a causative agent (for example radiation exposure) and the appearance of a delayed response in terms of effect (for example clinically manifest cancer).
Lateral stacker truckshow / hide
Vehicle to handle the transport units between the transfer hall and the buffer hall.
LDR probeshow / hide
Probe to measure the absorption of radiation by a particular matter or by the human body, measured per kilogramme per unit of time at a particular location.
Least favourable sampling pointshow / hide
Site with the comparatively highest exposure to radiation, chosen as the location for a probe.
Leukaemia show / hide
Malignant disease of white blood cells, cause widely unknown, incidence frequency 40 - 50 cases per 1 million inhabitants. There are several types with different course of disease and different probability of recovery.
Level show / hide
A level is understood to be either the lower boundary layer (floor) of a mine opening or the totality of the mine openings mined on a level.
LHD procedureshow / hide
Term for a method of work where tractors with rubber wheels load debris at one place, haul it to a discharge point and dump it into a bunker or bin.
Lifetime risk show / hide
Lifetime risk is a concept of epidemiology meaning the probability of developing a disorder over the course of a usual lifetime.
Light-water reactorshow / hide
Nuclear reactors using natural water H2O to brake (moderate) fast neutrons and to remove heat; as opposed to heavy-water reactors working with heavy water D2O (deuterium oxide). Depending on the type, a distinction is made between pressurised water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR).
Limit valueshow / hide
Maximum value which must not be exceeded.
Line of strikeshow / hide
Direction of the intersection of a geological surface with the horizontal level, in relation to the northern direction.
Liquid scintillation countingshow / hide
Test conducted in a health physics laboratory. A liquid scintillation analyser records the radioactive decay activity; the concentration of the dissolved material is then calculated.
Liquid scintillation measurementshow / hide
Measurement taken in the radiation protection laboratory, where radioactive decays are recorded with the help of a liquid scintillation analyser and subsequently the concentration of the dissolved material is calculated.
Literature review show / hide
Comprehensive evaluation of scientific publications on a given topic
Liver cell carcinoma show / hide
Cancer of the liver cells
Loadershow / hide
A device serving to load bulk materials or soil, to transport them over a short distance and then to unload them into a reservoir or onto a truck. A distinction is made between Front loader, overhead loader, rear loader etc.
local doseshow / hide
Dose equivalent for soft tissue, measured at a certain location.
Local dose rateshow / hide
The absorption of radiation by a particular matter or by the human body, measured per kilogramme per unit of time at a particular location.
Loosely-ionising / lowLET show / hide
Loosely-ionising or densely-ionising radiation, respectively, differ from each other in the spatial distance of the ionisation processes. These are in the case of densely-ionising radiation (alpha radiation, neutrons) considerably narrower than in the case of loosely-ionising radiation (gamma radiation, X-radiation, beta radiation). A different biological effectiveness is associated with this different ionisation density.
Lost concrete shieldings (VBA)show / hide
To shield radiation, radioactive waste with higher dose rates are usually equipped with an additional housing made from concrete. Drums containing radioactive waste are emplaced together with the concrete housing and remain in the emplacement chamber. The packaging consisting of drum and concrete shielding is thus 'lost'. In the Asse II mine, altogether 14,779 waste packages with lost concrete shieldings have been stored.
Low-level measurementshow / hide
Test conducted in a health physics laboratory to evaluate carrier materials as used in the wipe test, or samples of room air and similar.
low-level radioactive wasteshow / hide
Radioactive waste not requiring additional shielding of the containers when being handled.
“Löser”show / hide
Pieces of rock which may detach from the roof of a mine opening and fall down or which have already fallen down.