- What are electromagnetic fields?
- Static and low-frequency fields
- What are static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields?
- Direct and alternating voltage
- Effects of static and low-frequency fields
- Reports & Evaluations
- Radiation protection relating to the expansion of the national grid
- Basics transfer of electrical power
- High-frequency fields
- What are high-frequency fields?
- Applications high-frequency fields
- Radiation protection in mobile communication
- What is mobile communication?
- Reports and evaluations
- What is optical radiation?
- UV radiation
- What is UV radiation?
- Sun but safe!
- Effects of UV radiation
- Protection against UV radiation
- UV index
- Infrared radiation
- What is ionising radiation?
- Radioactivity in the environment
- Where does radioactivity occur in the environment?
- What is the level of natural radiation exposure in Germany?
- Air, soil and water
- Building materials
- Industrial residues (NORM)
- BfS laboratories
- Applications in medicine
- Radiation protection in medicine: international activities
- Applications in daily life and in technology
- Radioactive radiation sources in Germany
- Register high-level radioactive radiation sources
- Type approval procedure
- Cabin luggage security checks
- Radioactive materials in watches
- Ionisation smoke detectors (ISM)
- What are the effects of radiation?
- Effects of selected radioactive materials
- Consequences of a radiation accident
- Cancer and leukaemia
- Genetic radiation effects
- Individual radiosensitivity
- Epidemiology of radiation-induced diseases
- Ionising radiation: positive effects?
- Risk estimation and assessment
- Radiation protection
- Basic information
- Occupational radiation protection
- Nuclear accident management
- What is an emergency?
- What happens in an emergency?
- Federal and state tasks
- In the event of an emergency
- Measuring networks
- Exercises for emergency situations
- Defence against nuclear hazards
- Service offers
- Radon measurements
- Incorporation monitoring
- Biological dosimetry
- Online library
- About us
- Science and research
- Research concept
- Scientific collaborations
- EU research framework programme
- BfS research programme
- Third-party funded research
- Departmental research
- Selected research projects
- Selected research results
- Professional opinions
- Science Council
- Laws and regulations
- BfS Topics in the Bundestag
IARC classification for carcinogenicityshow / hide
The IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) developed a five-tier classification scheme for carcinogenicity, that is the risk to develop cancer, referring to 935 agents at present (IARC Monographs, Volume 1-100, as of 30 August 2010).
Immissionshow / hide
Immission describes the impact of environmental factors (as e.g. ionising radiation, electromagnetic fields, noise, pollutants) on humans and the environment.
Immobilisationshow / hide
Immobilising, embedding or casting of possibly pre-treated radioactive waste.
Immobilisation materialshow / hide
Material such as glass, cement/concrete, bitumen or plastic used to immobilise radioactive waste .
Incidence rate show / hide
In a cohort study the incidence rate is the ratio of the incidences to the totality of persons in a cohort observed during a certain period.
Incidentshow / hide
Course of events leading, for safety reasons, to a discontinuation of the facility’s operation or the activity. The facility must be designed for this course of events or precautions must be taken for the activities.
Inclineshow / hide
A rock layer’s angle of inclination to the horizontal level according to size and direction.
Incorporation show / hide
Generally: uptake into the body. Especially: uptake of radioactive substances into the human body.
Induction show / hide
Process in which electric current (eddy current) is generated in a conductor when the magnetic flux within this conductor is changed.
Influence show / hide
Process in which a redistribution of charge occurs through an outer electric field, so that a surplus of positive and negative electric charges occur locally at the surface of this body.
influent saline solutionsshow / hide
Saline solutions flowing into the mine.
Ingestion show / hide
Generally: uptake of food. Especially: uptake of radioactive substances with food.
Inhalation show / hide
Generally: breathing in of gases. Especially: uptake of radioactive substances with breathed air.
Inner containershow / hide
Container to take up waste products; placed into waste containers/casks.
Instrumentation and controlshow / hide
Control and regulation of technical processes.
Integrated Measuring and Information System for the Monitoring of Environmental Radioactivity (IMIS)show / hide
IMIS is a nation-wide comprehensive measuring system which permanently monitors the radioactivity in all important environmental media in the whole area of the Federal Republic of Germany. Federation and Laender share in this task: federal authorities monitor the large-area transport of radioactive substances and their distribution in air and water - Laender authorities monitor radioactivity where radioactive substances deposit and can possibly enter the food chain of man. IMIS comprises more than 2000 stationary measuring stations for the monitoring the gamma dose rate and the activity concentration in air, precipitation and watercourses. Additionally, radioactivity is permanently measured in food, feedstuffs, drinking water but also in residues and waste waters. All measuring institutions at federation and Laender are connected through a computer-aided data monitoring system to the Central Federal Agency at the Federal Office for Radiation Protection.
Intensityshow / hide
Measure of the local macroseismic effects of an earthquake at the earth’s surface to humans, buildings and landscape. The 12-point scale MSK 1964 (Medvedev, Sponheuer, Karnik) is used for classification. Short form of the 12 point macroseismic intensity scale MSK 1964 (Sponheuer, 1965).
Intensity Ishow / hide
Not noticeable. Only registered by earth quake instruments
Intensity IIshow / hide
Hardly noticeable. Only perceived by resting persons in individual cases.
Intensity IIIshow / hide
Weak, only observed partially.
Intensity IVshow / hide
Largely observed. Perceived in houses by many persons, in the open just by a few persons.
Intensity IXshow / hide
General damage to buildings.
Intensity Vshow / hide
Rousing from sleep. Observed by everyone in houses, in the open by many persons.
Intensity VIshow / hide
Alarming. First slight damage to buildings
Intensity VIIshow / hide
Damage to buildings
Intensity VIIIshow / hide
Partial destruction of buildings.
Intensity Xshow / hide
Landslides. General damage to buildings. Cracks up to one metre wide in the ground.
Intensity XIshow / hide
Disaster. Serious damage to even best-constructed buildings. Numerous landslides and cracks in the ground.
Intensity XIIshow / hide
Changing landscape. Major transformation to the earth’s surface.
Interim storage show / hide
Temporally limited storage of spent fuel elements or radioactive waste prior to their disposal. Spent fuel elements are to be stored in decentralised interim storage facilities on the sites of the nuclear power plants, in fact until they have been conditioned suitably for disposal in a repository.
Interim storage facilities on the NPP site show / hide
Facilities where spent fuel elements can be stored in appropriate transport and storage containers on the site of a nuclear power plant until their conditioning suitable for disposal in a repository. Storage time is planned to be 40 years at maximum, starting at loading of the first container.
intermediate-level radioactive wasteshow / hide
Radioactive waste requiring additional shielding of the containers when being handled.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)show / hide
International organisation founded in 1957 for the support of the peaceful application and use of nuclear energy, registered office in Vienna. The IAEA is an independent organisation within the UN.
International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)show / hide
International body in the field of radiation protection. The International Commission on Radiological Protection consists of a chairperson, twelve other members and the secretary. The members are elected through the ICRP of nominations submitted by the national delegations of the International Congress and by their own members. The members of the ICRP are selected on the basis of their acknowledged performance in the fields medical radiology, radiation protection, physics, medical physics, biology, genetics, biochemistry, and biophysics. The ICRP was founded in 1928, then named "International X-ray and Radium Protection Committee", upon decision of the 2nd International Congress for Radiology. In 1950 it was restructured and renamed. The Commission works in close co-operation with the International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements (ICRU) and has official connections to the World Health Organisation (WHO).
Interneurons show / hide
Nerve cells which serve to control excitation and to process information by switching other nerve cells inhibitorily or excitingly.
Intervention show / hide
Intervention in order to get influence on existing exposure pathways with the objective to effect a reduction in exposure even when parties involved are exposed more during the time of intervention.
Interventional radiology show / hide
Procedure in which healing measures - mainly the stretching of narrowed or locked blood vessels are performed under fluoroscopic control.
In vitro show / hide
In the test tube (observed or performed).
In vivo show / hide
At the living object (observed or performed).
Ionisation show / hide
Discharge or uptake of electrons through atoms or molecules which are converted into an electrically charged state through this.
Ionising radiation show / hide
Each type of radiation generating directly or indirectly electrically charged atomic or molecular particles, so-called ions, by taking up or discharging electrons from neutral atoms or molecules and is thus in a position to effect ionisation processes at atoms and molecules in the matter penetrated by it. Alpha radiation: Particle radiation in the form of nuclei of the helium element (alpha particles). Beta radiation: Particle radiation in the form of electrons (beta particles). Gamma radiation: High-energetic, short-wave electromagnetic radiation being emitted at the radioactive decay of a nuclide from the atomic nucleus. It occurs frequently together with alpha and beta radiation. Neutron radiation: Radiation in the form of electrically neutral elementary particles (neutrons). X-radiation: High-energetic, short-wave electromagnetic radiation being generated with the help of technical equipment (X-ray tube). X-radiation and gamma radiation are identical in the basic physical nature.
Isotope show / hide
Atoms of one and the same chemical elements with the same number of protons (same atomic number but different nuclear number) and electrons but different number of neutrons. Isotopes have the same chemical but different nucleonic characteristics.