Navigation and service

Glossary

Englischsprachiges Glossar

IARC classification for carcinogenicityshow / hide

The IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) developed a five-tier classification scheme for carcinogenicity, that is the risk to develop cancer, referring to 935 agents at present (IARC Monographs, Volume 1-100, as of 30 August 2010).

Immissionshow / hide

Effect of air pollution, harmful substances, noise, radiation and similar things to humans, animals and vegetation.

Immobilisationshow / hide

Immobilising, embedding or casting of possibly pre-treated radioactive waste.

Immobilisation materialshow / hide

Material such as glass, cement/concrete, bitumen or plastic used to immobilise radioactive waste .

alternative

Incidence rate show / hide

In a cohort study the incidence rate is the ratio of the incidences to the totality of persons in a cohort observed during a certain period.

Incidentshow / hide

Course of events leading, for safety reasons, to a discontinuation of the facility’s operation or the activity. The facility must be designed for this course of events or precautions must be taken for the activities.

Inclineshow / hide

A rock layer’s angle of inclination to the horizontal level according to size and direction.

Incorporation show / hide

Generally: uptake into the body. Especially: uptake of radioactive substances into the human body.

Individual doseshow / hide

Quantity of radiation exposure to individuals due to ionising radiation.

Induction show / hide

Process in which electric current (eddy current) is generated in a conductor when the magnetic flux within this conductor is changed.

Influence show / hide

Process in which a redistribution of charge occurs through an outer electric field, so that a surplus of positive and negative electric charges occur locally at the surface of this body.

influent saline solutionsshow / hide

Saline solutions flowing into the mine.

Ingestion show / hide

Generally: uptake of food. Especially: uptake of radioactive substances with food.

Inhalation show / hide

Generally: breathing in of gases. Especially: uptake of radioactive substances with breathed air.

Inner containershow / hide

Container to take up waste products; placed into waste containers/casks.

Instrumentation and controlshow / hide

Control and regulation of technical processes.

Integrated Measuring and Information System for the Monitoring of Environmental Radioactivity (IMIS)show / hide

IMIS is a nation-wide comprehensive measuring system which permanently monitors the radioactivity in all important environmental media in the whole area of the Federal Republic of Germany. Federation and Laender share in this task: federal authorities monitor the large-area transport of radioactive substances and their distribution in air and water - Laender authorities monitor radioactivity where radioactive substances deposit and can possibly enter the food chain of man. IMIS comprises more than 2000 stationary measuring stations for the monitoring the gamma dose rate and the activity concentration in air, precipitation and watercourses. Additionally, radioactivity is permanently measured in food, feedstuffs, drinking water but also in residues and waste waters. All measuring institutions at federation and Laender are connected through a computer-aided data monitoring system to the Central Federal Agency at the Federal Office for Radiation Protection.

Intensityshow / hide

Measure of the local macroseismic effects of an earthquake at the earth’s surface to humans, buildings and landscape. The 12-point scale MSK 1964 (Medvedev, Sponheuer, Karnik) is used for classification. Short form of the 12 point macroseismic intensity scale MSK 1964 (Sponheuer, 1965).

alternative

Intensity Ishow / hide

Not noticeable. Only registered by earth quake instruments

alternative

Intensity IIshow / hide

Hardly noticeable. Only perceived by resting persons in individual cases.

alternative

Intensity IIIshow / hide

Weak, only observed partially.

alternative

Intensity IVshow / hide

Largely observed. Perceived in houses by many persons, in the open just by a few persons.

alternative

Intensity IXshow / hide

General damage to buildings.

alternative

Intensity Vshow / hide

Rousing from sleep. Observed by everyone in houses, in the open by many persons.

alternative

Intensity VIshow / hide

Alarming. First slight damage to buildings

alternative

Intensity VIIshow / hide

Damage to buildings

alternative

Intensity VIIIshow / hide

Partial destruction of buildings.

alternative

Intensity Xshow / hide

Landslides. General damage to buildings. Cracks up to one metre wide in the ground.

alternative

Intensity XIshow / hide

Disaster. Serious damage to even best-constructed buildings. Numerous landslides and cracks in the ground.

alternative

Intensity XIIshow / hide

Changing landscape. Major transformation to the earth’s surface.

alternative

Interim storage show / hide

Temporally limited storage of spent fuel elements or radioactive waste prior to their disposal. Spent fuel elements are to be stored in decentralised interim storage facilities on the sites of the nuclear power plants, in fact until they have been conditioned suitably for disposal in a repository.

Interim storage facilities on the NPP site show / hide

Facilities where spent fuel elements can be stored in appropriate transport and storage containers on the site of a nuclear power plant until their conditioning suitable for disposal in a repository. Storage time is planned to be 40 years at maximum, starting at loading of the first container.

intermediate-level radioactive wasteshow / hide

Radioactive waste requiring additional shielding of the containers when being handled.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)show / hide

International organisation founded in 1957 for the support of the peaceful application and use of nuclear energy, registered office in Vienna. The IAEA is an independent organisation within the UN.

International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)show / hide

International body in the field of radiation protection. The International Commission on Radiological Protection consists of a chairperson, twelve other members and the secretary. The members are elected through the ICRP of nominations submitted by the national delegations of the International Congress and by their own members. The members of the ICRP are selected on the basis of their acknowledged performance in the fields medical radiology, radiation protection, physics, medical physics, biology, genetics, biochemistry, and biophysics. The ICRP was founded in 1928, then named "International X-ray and Radium Protection Committee", upon decision of the 2nd International Congress for Radiology. In 1950 it was restructured and renamed. The Commission works in close co-operation with the International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements (ICRU) and has official connections to the World Health Organisation (WHO).

Interneurons show / hide

Nerve cells which serve to control excitation and to process information by switching other nerve cells inhibitorily or excitingly.

Intervention show / hide

Intervention in order to get influence on existing exposure pathways with the objective to effect a reduction in exposure even when parties involved are exposed more during the time of intervention.

alternative

Interventional radiology show / hide

Procedure in which healing measures - mainly the stretching of narrowed or locked blood vessels are performed under fluoroscopic control.

In vitro show / hide

In the test tube (observed or performed).

In vivo show / hide

At the living object (observed or performed).

Ionisation show / hide

Discharge or uptake of electrons through atoms or molecules which are converted into an electrically charged state through this.

Ionising radiation show / hide

Each type of radiation generating directly or indirectly electrically charged atomic or molecular particles, so-called ions, by taking up or discharging electrons from neutral atoms or molecules and is thus in a position to effect ionisation processes at atoms and molecules in the matter penetrated by it. Alpha radiation: Particle radiation in the form of nuclei of the helium element (alpha particles). Beta radiation: Particle radiation in the form of electrons (beta particles). Gamma radiation: High-energetic, short-wave electromagnetic radiation being emitted at the radioactive decay of a nuclide from the atomic nucleus. It occurs frequently together with alpha and beta radiation. Neutron radiation: Radiation in the form of electrically neutral elementary particles (neutrons). X-radiation: High-energetic, short-wave electromagnetic radiation being generated with the help of technical equipment (X-ray tube). X-radiation and gamma radiation are identical in the basic physical nature.

Isotope show / hide

Atoms of one and the same chemical elements with the same number of protons (same atomic number but different nuclear number) and electrons but different number of neutrons. Isotopes have the same chemical but different nucleonic characteristics.

© Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz