- What are electromagnetic fields?
- Static and low-frequency fields
- What are static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields?
- Direct and alternating voltage
- Effects of static and low-frequency fields
- Reports & Evaluations
- Radiation protection relating to the expansion of the national grid
- Basics transfer of electrical power
- High-frequency fields
- What are high-frequency fields?
- Applications high-frequency fields
- Radiation protection in mobile communication
- What is mobile communication?
- Reports and evaluations
- What is optical radiation?
- UV radiation
- What is UV radiation?
- Sun but safe!
- Effects of UV radiation
- Protection against UV radiation
- UV index
- Infrared radiation
- What is ionising radiation?
- Radioactivity in the environment
- Where does radioactivity occur in the environment?
- What is the level of natural radiation exposure in Germany?
- Air, soil and water
- Building materials
- Industrial residues (NORM)
- BfS laboratories
- Applications in medicine
- Radiation protection in medicine: international activities
- Applications in daily life and in technology
- Radioactive radiation sources in Germany
- Register high-level radioactive radiation sources
- Type approval procedure pursuant to RöV and StrlSchV
- Cabin luggage security checks
- Radioactive materials in watches
- Ionisation smoke detectors (ISM)
- What are the effects of radiation?
- Effects of selected radioactive materials
- Consequences of a radiation accident
- Cancer and leukaemia
- Genetic radiation effects
- Individual radiosensitivity
- Epidemiology of radiation-induced diseases
- Ionising radiation: positive effects?
- Risk estimation and assessment
- Radiation protection
- Basic informations
- Occupational radiation protection
- Nuclear accident management
- What is an emergency?
- What happens in an emergency?
- Federal and state tasks
- In the event of an emergency
- Measuring networks
- Exercises for emergency situations
- Defence against nuclear hazards
- Service offers
- Radon measurements
- Incorporation monitoring
- Biological dosimetry
- Online library
- About us
- Science and research
- Research concept
- Scientific collaborations
- EU research framework programme
- BfS research programme
- Third-party funded research
- Departmental research
- Selected research projects
- Selected research results
- Professional opinions
- Science Council
- Laws and regulations
- BfS Topics in the Bundestag
Half-lifeshow / hide
- physical: time interval in which half of the nuclei of a radioactive nuclide have decayed. Short half-lives lead to a high radiation activity, long half-lives yield a low radiation activity.
- biological: time interval in which a biological system, e.g. a human being or an animal, excretes (e.g. via the urine) half of the amount of a certain substance taken up in the body or a certain organ.
- effective: time interval in which the amount of a radionuclide in a biological system is reduced by half, as a result of a coaction of radioactive decay and excretion.
Headingshow / hide
Driving of cavities (mining).
Healthy Worker Effect show / hide
In epidemiological cohort studies a low frequency of falling ill often occurs in occupationally exposed groups of persons, compared to non-exposed persons of the general population, as for some professions a certain health constitution is a prerequisite. Not employed persons are usually "more ill" than employed persons. A reduced risk of falling ill based on the unilateral selection of healthier occupationally exposed persons is referred to as Healthy Worker Effect.
High-frequency show / hide
High-frequency electromagnetic fields. Here defined as frequencies between 100 kHz and 300 GHz.
HMGU show / hide
Helmholtz Zentrum München- German Research Center for Environmental Health
Horizontal pillar show / hide
The horizontal pillar is the mining term for the remaining rock between superposing mine openings.
Hot cell show / hide
Strongly shielded, tight housing where radioactive materials of high activity are handled by remote control with the help of manipulators and where work processes can be observed through leaded windows, thus not involving risks for the staff.
Hot spots show / hide
Spatially limited areas with particularly high absorption of electromagnetic fields.
Household panel show / hide
Representative selection of households where interviews have been carried out in intervals.