- What are electromagnetic fields?
- Static and low-frequency fields
- What are static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields?
- Direct and alternating voltage
- Effects of static and low-frequency fields
- Reports & Evaluations
- Radiation protection relating to the expansion of the national grid
- Basics transfer of electrical power
- High-frequency fields
- What are high-frequency fields?
- Applications high-frequency fields
- Radiation protection in mobile communication
- What is mobile communication?
- Reports and evaluations
- What is optical radiation?
- UV radiation
- What is UV radiation?
- Sun but safe!
- Effects of UV radiation
- Protection against UV radiation
- UV index
- Infrared radiation
- What is ionising radiation?
- Radioactivity in the environment
- Where does radioactivity occur in the environment?
- What is the level of natural radiation exposure in Germany?
- Air, soil and water
- Building materials
- Industrial residues (NORM)
- BfS laboratories
- Applications in medicine
- Radiation protection in medicine: international activities
- Applications in daily life and in technology
- Radioactive radiation sources in Germany
- Register high-level radioactive radiation sources
- Type approval procedure pursuant to RöV and StrlSchV
- Cabin luggage security checks
- Radioactive materials in watches
- Ionisation smoke detectors (ISM)
- What are the effects of radiation?
- Effects of selected radioactive materials
- Consequences of a radiation accident
- Cancer and leukaemia
- Genetic radiation effects
- Individual radiosensitivity
- Epidemiology of radiation-induced diseases
- Ionising radiation: positive effects?
- Risk estimation and assessment
- Radiation protection
- Basic information
- Occupational radiation protection
- Nuclear accident management
- What is an emergency?
- What happens in an emergency?
- Federal and state tasks
- In the event of an emergency
- Measuring networks
- Exercises for emergency situations
- Defence against nuclear hazards
- Service offers
- Radon measurements
- Incorporation monitoring
- Biological dosimetry
- Online library
- About us
- Science and research
- Research concept
- Scientific collaborations
- EU research framework programme
- BfS research programme
- Third-party funded research
- Departmental research
- Selected research projects
- Selected research results
- Professional opinions
- Science Council
- Laws and regulations
- BfS Topics in the Bundestag
Facies show / hide
Totality of features of a sediment rock such as petrologic structure or fossil content.
Facility, nuclearshow / hide
Civilian facility including its premises, buildings and equipment, where radioactive material is produced, processed, used, handled, stored or disposed of to an extent which requires making safety considerations.
Fall-out show / hide
Radioactive material from the atmosphere having reached the earth in the form of smallest particles and deposited through precipitation and sedimentation of aerosols, having for instance originated in nuclear tests.
Far field show / hide
From a certain distance to a radiation source on, the electromagnetic field is termed far field. In the far field the electric and magnetic field are closely coupled to each other and can be converted into each other using a constant factor.
Faultshow / hide
Dividing surface in the rock where the adjoining rock strata are pushed together due to processes in the earth’s interior (e.g. vertically displaced).
Feasibility study show / hide
In a feasibility study it is investigated if and under which conditions a planned elaborate investigation can be successful.
Federal Network Agency(Bundesnetzagentur, BNetzA) show / hide
Federal Network Agency for Electricity, Gas, Telecommunications, Post and Railways. In July 2005 the regulatory authority for telecommunications and post (RegTP) was renamed to "Federal Network Agency for Electricity, Gas, Telecommunications, Post and Railways". At the samt time its scope of duties was extended. The tasks in the area of telecommunications include e. g. the granting of site certific-ates for mobile phone base stations on the basis of the Ordinance concerning the Controls for the Limitation of Electromagnetic Fields (BEMFV). The Federal Network Agency carries out test series to control compliance with limit values as well as, in individual cases, controls of stationary amateur radio installations. Data of the site certificates of mobile phone base stations can be found in the EMF data base.
Federal order show / hide
The Laender execute federal laws by order of the Federal Government (Bundesauftragsverwaltung, federal executive administration). When judging and deciding a situation differently, the Federal Government can give a federal order to the Land relating to the decision. The responsibility for the decision made according to the order is then with the Federal Government.
Federal state collecting depot show / hide
Federal state (or Laender) collecting depots are the interim storage facilities of the Laender erected for the waste produced in the areas of medicine, technology and research. Federal state collecting depots do not accept waste produced in connection with energy supply and reprocessing.
Fertility show / hide
Field show / hide
State of space in which each space point can be assigned to the value of a physical quantity, e. g. electric or magnetic field strength.
Fire loadshow / hide
Mass of all combustible materials in a defined room.
Fission productsshow / hide
Nuclides generating by fission or the following radioactive decay of the nuclides that have directly generated by fission.
Flatbed rail wagonshow / hide
Non-motorised rail-borne vehicle.
Floor show / hide
The mining term floor refers to a rock layer underlying a reference layer (rock layer superposing this).
Floor conveyor systemshow / hide
Rail transport system to transport the flatbed rail wagons.
Fluvialshow / hide
Worked, transported, deposited or enriched by rivers.
Follow-up show / hide
In Epidemiology, the follow-up is the observation of a group of persons (cohort) in a cohort study over a certain period of time (follow-up period). The cohort members are observed with respect to diseases (incidence follow-up) or death (mortality follow-up) by an appointed date. For the incidence follow-up, for example, cancer registries can be consulted. For deceased persons, the cause and date of death are requested at the health authorities and communities.
Food chainshow / hide
Interrelationship between organisms, where one link lives off the consumption of the previous link.
Formationshow / hide
Unit of rocks belonging together genetically. Was formerly only used in terms of stratigraphics.
Formation watersshow / hide
Aqueous solutions from the geological past stored in rock layers.
Foul air channelshow / hide
Discharge channel for used air and harmful gases.
Free-cutting worksshow / hide
Removal of bushes and shrubs, e.g. at the fence of the premises.
Frequency show / hide
Number of oscillations in a time unit. Frequency and wavelength are connected to each other.
The measure of frequency is Hertz (Hz):
1 Hz = 1 oscillation per second = 1/s.
1 kilohertz (kHz) = 1000 Hz
1 megahertz (MHz) = 1000 kHz
1 gigahertz (GHz) = 1000 MHz
1 terahertz (THz) = 1000 GHz
Fuel cycleshow / hide
Process where nuclear fuel supply of nuclear reactors and waste management is carried out, consisting of uranium mining, fuel enrichment, fuel element fabrication, reprocessing, fuel element storage and radioactive waste disposal.
Fuel element show / hide
Arrangement in which a multitude of fuel rods has been combined to form a construction unit with which the nuclear fuel is brought into the reactor.
Fuel rod show / hide
Geometrical shape in which nuclear fuel, coated with hull material, is brought into a reactor. Mostly several fuel rods are combined to form a fuel element (Brennelement, BE). In the case of the Krümmel nuclear power plant with a boiling water reactor 72 fuel rods form a fuel element, in the case of the pressurised water reactor of the Emsland nuclear power plant 300 fuel rods have been combined to form one fuel element.