- What are electromagnetic fields?
- Static and low-frequency fields
- What are static and low-frequency fields?
- Direct and alternating voltage
- Effects of static and low-frequency fields
- Reports & Evaluations
- Radiation protection relating to the expansion of the national grid
- Basics transfer of electrical power
- High-frequency fields
- What are high-frequency fields?
- Applications high-frequency fields
- Radiation protection in mobile communication
- What is mobile communication?
- Reports and evaluations
- What is optical radiation?
- UV radiation
- What is UV radiation?
- Sun but safe!
- Effects of UV radiation
- Protection against UV radiation
- UV index
- Infrared radiation
- What is ionising radiation?
- Radioactivity in the environment
- Where does radioactivity occur in the environment?
- What is the level of natural radiation exposure in Germany?
- Air, soil and water
- Building materials
- Industrial residues (NORM)
- BfS laboratories
- Applications in medicine
- Applications in daily life and in technology
- Radioactive radiation sources in Germany
- Register high-level radioactive radiation sources
- Type approval procedure pursuant to RöV and StrlSchV
- Cabin luggage security checks
- Radioactive materials in watches
- Ionisation smoke detectors (ISM)
- What are the effects of radiation?
- Acute radiation damage
- Effects of selected radioactive materials
- Consequences of a radiation accident
- Cancer and leukaemia
- Genetic radiation effects
- Individual radiosensitivity
- Epidemiology of radiation-induced diseases
- Ionising radiation: positive effects?
- Risk estimation and assessment
- Radiation protection
- Basic informations
- Occupational radiation protection
- Nuclear accident management
- What happens in an emergency?
- Federal and state tasks
- In the event of an emergency
- Measuring networks
- Exercises for emergency situations
- Nuclear accidents
- Defence against nuclear hazards
- Service offers
- Radon measurements
- Incorporation monitoring
- Biological dosimetry
- About us
- Science and research
- Research concept
- Scientific collaborations
- EU research framework programme
- BfS research programme
- Third-party funded research
- Departmental research
- Selected research projects
- Selected research results
- Professional opinions
- Laws and regulations
- BfS Topics in the Bundestag
ECGshow / hide
Electrocardiogram: graph of voltage versus time produced by recording the action potentials of the heart over a period of time; the deflections of the graph represent various phases of depolarization and repolarization of the heart.
Eddy current show / hide
Electric current generated by induction in a conductible body.
Effective dose show / hide
The Effective dose considers the different sensitivity of organs and tissues forstochastic radiation effects. For this purpose the equivalent doses are weighted by tissue weighting factors. The weighting factors represent the relative contributions of the single organs and tissues to the total health detriment resulting from uniform irradiation of the whole body.The effective dose is sum of the the tissue-weighted equivalent doses in all specified organs and tissues of the body. It is weighted such that the sum of the tissue weighting factors is unity. The unit of effective dose is J/kg with the special name Sievert (Sv). In radiation protection practice usually fractions of the unit dose are used, e. g. Millisievert (mSv), Microsievert (µSv).
Electric charge show / hide
Feature of bodies consisting in the existence of a weight between the charged bodies. At random one distinguishes between positive and negative electric charges. Charges with the same sign repel mutually, those with unequal signs attract each other. The measure is Coulomb (C).
Electric current show / hide
The electric charge flowing through the cross-section of a conductor, referring to time. The measure is Volt (V).
Electric field show / hide
Force field forming between electrically charged bodies. According to the size of its electric charge a force acts on a body in the electric field. The measure for strength and direction of this force is the electric field strength E given in Volt per metre (V/m).
Electric field strength show / hide
Measure for the strength and direction of an electric field. The measure is Volt per meter (V/m).
Electroencephalogram (EEG) show / hide
a method to measure cerebral currents.
Electromagnetic field show / hide
One talks about an electromagnetic field if temporally changeable electric and magnetic fields are non-detachably connected with each other at high frequencies.
Electron show / hide
Elementary particle with a negative electric elementary charge. Electrons orbit the positively charged atomic nucleus. Their number determines the chemical behaviour of the atom.
Electrosensibility show / hide
Special sensibility to low- and high-frequency electromagnetic waves. Affected persons perceive e. g. electric currents clearly at lower intensities than the average population.
Electrosensitivity show / hide
Description of a subjectively perceived special sensitivity to low- and high-frequency electromagnetic fields. Electromagnetic fields are considered to be the cause of various unspecific symptoms such as headaches, rheumatic pains, insomnia, dizziness, lack of concentration or listlessness. No scientific proof for a causal correlation between the health complaints and the effects of low-frequency or high-frequency electromagnetic fields could be established yet.
Electrostatic field show / hide
Temporally unchanged electric field.
Embedded case-control study show / hide
In a cohort study it may be necessary to use additional information for a certain problem which is not available to all of the cohort or which cannot be gathered for all members of the cohort for economical reasons. In this case "cases" and controls are selected from the cohort, for which then (embedded in the cohort-study) further data is collected within the scope of a case-control study, e. g. by interrogations.
emergency bore holesshow / hide
Vertical or horizontal drillings serving as escape ways in case of emergency.
Emissionshow / hide
To radiate, to emanate.
emplacement chambershow / hide
Cavity methodically produced through mining where radioactive waste has been emplaced.
Energy doseshow / hide
Absorbed energy of ionising radiation per unit of measurement. The unit of measurement is the gray (Gy)(1Gy = 1J/kg).
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) (Umweltverträglichkeitsprüfung, UVP) show / hide
Within the scope of the "plan-approval (licensing) procedure" the EIA comprises the identification, description and evaluation of the effects of a project on man, animals, plants, soil, water, air , climate and landscape, including the respective interactions and on cultural assets and real assets.
Epicentreshow / hide
Projection of the focus of an earthquake area to the earth’s surface.
Epidemiological investigations show / hide
Epidemiology deals with the investigation of disease distribution in the population and with the risk factors on which this distribution is based. The most frequent study types to investigate the correlation between diseases and risk factors on which they are based are case-control studies, cross-sectional studies and cohort studies.
Epidemiology show / hide
Sector of science dealing with the distribution of transferable and non-transferable diseases and their physical, chemical, mental and social determinants and consequences in the population.
Epirogenicshow / hide
Tectonic processes over large areas within the earth’s crust lasting over long periods of time and keeping the natural rock formation intact.
Equipmentshow / hide
Machines and vehicles in the conventional area of the repository mine.
Equivalent isotropic radiated power (EIRP) show / hide
EIRP characterizes the properties of a transmitter. It is based on the transmitter power and the antenna gain. It indicates the total power that would be needed for a (hypothetical) isotropic antenna if it were to produce the same power density as a beam antenna.
Erosionshow / hide
Extensive ablation of the earth’s crust, e.g. by water or wind.
Evaporitesshow / hide
Minerals and rocks formed from watery solutions due to strong or complete evaporation of the water solvent.
Exchange palletshow / hide
Reusable device to transport cylindrical waste packages.
Exemption levels show / hide
Values of activity and specific activity of radioactive substances according to Annex III Table 1 Columns 2 and 3 Radiation Protection Ordinance. When these values are exceeded, activities with these radioactive substances are subject to monitoring under this ordinance.
Exhaust airshow / hide
Airflow behind an underground heading up to the point where it gets into the environment at the surface.
Exhaust air drillingshow / hide
Drilling for the transportation of mine air, which is again released into the environment.
Exhaust air shaftshow / hide
Exhaust air opening of a mine.
Explorationshow / hide
Measures to prospect a deposit or to determine the rock features and depositional features of a geological body.
Exposure pathway show / hide
Pathway of radioactive substances, starting from the discharge from a facility or installation via a dispersion or transport process to radiation exposure of man
Exposure pathway, relevantshow / hide
Those of the possible pathways of radioactive materials (such as the discharge from a facility or an institution, migration or transport processes and radiation exposure to man) are referred to as being relevant that can contribute significantly to the radiation exposure to man either by incorporation (over food chains), by inhalation or by external radiation according to the present state of knowledge.
Extensometershow / hide
An extensometer is a measuring device of rock mechanics. It measures rock pressure.