- What are electromagnetic fields?
- Static and low-frequency fields
- What are static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields?
- Direct and alternating voltage
- Effects of static and low-frequency fields
- Reports & Evaluations
- Radiation protection relating to the expansion of the national grid
- Basics transfer of electrical power
- High-frequency fields
- What are high-frequency fields?
- Applications high-frequency fields
- Radiation protection in mobile communication
- What is mobile communication?
- Reports and evaluations
- What is optical radiation?
- UV radiation
- What is UV radiation?
- Sun but safe!
- Effects of UV radiation
- Protection against UV radiation
- UV index
- Infrared radiation
- What is ionising radiation?
- Radioactivity in the environment
- Where does radioactivity occur in the environment?
- What is the level of natural radiation exposure in Germany?
- Air, soil and water
- Building materials
- Industrial residues (NORM)
- BfS laboratories
- Applications in medicine
- Radiation protection in medicine: international activities
- Applications in daily life and in technology
- Radioactive radiation sources in Germany
- Register high-level radioactive radiation sources
- Type approval procedure pursuant to RöV and StrlSchV
- Cabin luggage security checks
- Radioactive materials in watches
- Ionisation smoke detectors (ISM)
- What are the effects of radiation?
- Acute radiation damage
- Effects of selected radioactive materials
- Consequences of a radiation accident
- Cancer and leukaemia
- Genetic radiation effects
- Individual radiosensitivity
- Epidemiology of radiation-induced diseases
- Ionising radiation: positive effects?
- Risk estimation and assessment
- Radiation protection
- Basic informations
- Occupational radiation protection
- Nuclear accident management
- What happens in an emergency?
- Federal and state tasks
- In the event of an emergency
- Measuring networks
- Exercises for emergency situations
- Nuclear accidents
- Defence against nuclear hazards
- Service offers
- Radon measurements
- Incorporation monitoring
- Biological dosimetry
- Online library
- About us
- Science and research
- Research concept
- Scientific collaborations
- EU research framework programme
- BfS research programme
- Third-party funded research
- Departmental research
- Selected research projects
- Selected research results
- Professional opinions
- Laws and regulations
- BfS Topics in the Bundestag
Backfill show / hide
Backfill is both the procedure and the material (filling material) for the backfilling of the still existing cavities or residual cavities during the final sealing phase in the post-closure phase of a repository mine.
Backfill, stowageshow / hide
Material used to backfill the cavities resulting from mining or that are still open after radioactive waste has been emplaced.
Backfill, toshow / hide
Filling debris of a special grain size into filled emplacement chambers and other mine openings with the objective to minimise remaining cavities.
backfilling of roof cleftsshow / hide
Balancingshow / hide
Identification and activity determination of radionuclides or radionuclide groups and their comparison with the respective authorised limits.
Bankshow / hide
Rock layer limited by (layer) joint.
barrier integrityshow / hide
Intact state of barriers in which they fulfil their function.
barriersshow / hide
Barriers, geologicalshow / hide
Geological conditions to prevent inadmissible releases of radioactive materials (such as repository formation, adjoining rock or overburden).
Barriers, radiological show / hide
The radioactive inventory of a nuclear facility is safely enclosed with the help of the multi-barrier system, i. e. in order to be released, radioactive substances have to pass several different barriers one after the other. The radiological barriers of a nuclear reactor consist of: 1. the retention of the fission products in the nuclear fuel itself, 2. the enclosure of the nuclear fuel in hull pipes, 3. the enclosure of the fuel elements in the reactor pressure vessel, and 4. the gas-tight containment around the reactor pressure vessel.
Barriers, technicalshow / hide
Technical measures to prevent inadmissible releases of radioactive materials (such as waste product, package, stowage or shaft sealing).
Becquerel show / hide
The Becquerel (short form: Bq) is the measuring unit of the "activity" of a radioactive substance and indicates how many nuclear disintegrations per second occur.
Bed separators show / hide
Bed separators are pieces of rock separating from the roof of a mine opening which may fall down or have already fallen down.
Beta particles show / hide
Particle radiation in the form of electrons (beta particles). Electron with positive or negative charge which is emitted by an atomic nucleus or elementary particle during beta decay. The penetration capacity of beta particles is some centimetres to metres in air, in soft part tissue or plastic some millimetres to centimetres. Generally beta decay is accompanied by the emission of gamma radiation. cf. alpha radiation, gamma radiation.
Beta radiation show / hide
Particle radiation consisting of electrons which are emitted by atomic nuclei during radioactive decay. The energy distribution of the beta particles is continuous (beta spectrum) and has a sharp upper limit (so-called end energy).
Beta-ray emittersshow / hide
Particles produced through radioactive decay, consisting of electrons or respectively positrons.
Beta submersion show / hide
Radiation exposure through beta radiation of radioactive substances in the atmosphere.
binshow / hide
Inclined or vertical connection of mine openings that were e.g. driven in the period of salt production in the Asse mine, to mine salt by using gravity.
Bioelectromagnetic Society (BEMS) show / hide
The BEMS was founded in 1978 as an organisation of scientists of the fields of biology, physics, medicine and engineering, who are interested in the interactions of electromagnetic fields with biological systems. The BEMS is an international organisation consisting currently of about 626 persons from 38 countries. It publishes the scientific professional journal "Bioelectromagnetics".
Biological effects show / hide
Influences on living material (organisms, tissues, cells).
Biosphere show / hide
Totality of the part of the earth which is filled with life.
Bismuthshow / hide
Chemical element with the symbol Bi and the atomic number 83; Bismuth was considered the heaviest stable chemical element until the radioactivity of the isotope 209Bi was discovered in 2003. The naturally occurring Bismuth consists entirely of 209Bi, which has a very long half-life (about 19 quintillion years). Therefore, its specific activity is very low and cannot be detected with normal measuring devices. It decays via alpha decay to the stable Thallium isotope 205Tl. The Bismuth isotopes 210Bi, 211Bi, 212Bi and 214Bi are members of the three natural decay chains (so-called radiogenic radionuclides) and therefore always exist in traces in the environment.
Bituminisationshow / hide
Immobilisation of radioactive waste in a bitumen matrix.
blind shaftshow / hide
Vertical mine opening (shaft) not connected to the surface.
Blood-brain barrier show / hide
The blood-brain barrier is a selectively permeable barrier between blood and cerebral matter. It actively controls the substance exchange between blood and central nervous system. It keeps away damaging substances from the neurons. The blood-brain barrier is formed by the inner cell layer of the small blood vessels in the brain (capillary endothelial cells and the surrounding auxiliary cells, the astrocytes.
Bobbinshow / hide
Cable carrier of a hoisting machine for the sinking of shafts; it uses a flat rope as conveyor cable. The flat rope generates no spin and can be wound one on top of the other.
Body doseshow / hide
Collective term (used in Germany) for equivalent dose and effective dose. The body dose for a reference period (e. g. calendar year, month) is the sum of the dose received by external radiation exposure during this reference period and the committed dose received by internal radiation exposure which is due to an activity intake during this reference period. The unit of the body dose is J/kg with the special name Sievert (Sv).
Boiling water reactorshow / hide
Power reactor at which (in contrast to the pressurised water reactor, german: Druckwasserreaktor DWR) a part of the cooling water boils inside the reactor and the heat is discharged as steam. The wet steam or saturated steam generated in this way is directly used for driving the turbine and the generator to produce electric current. German: Siedewasserreaktor, SWR.
Bottom landingshow / hide
Transition zone from shaft to mine.
Brachytherapy show / hide
Treatment of diseases through radiation sources brought into the body or put onto the body, respectively.
Brine management and monitoringshow / hide
Management of liquids existing in the mine, e.g. collection and transport of influent saline solutions.
British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL)show / hide
British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., former State-owned enterprise in the UK, operated among others the reprocessing plant in Sellafield. BNFL have ceased their activities since May 2009.
Bronchial carcinoma show / hide
Cancer of the bronchi, lung cancer.
bruciteshow / hide
Magnesium containing mineral contained in the magnesium depot, Mg(OH)2.
Buffer hallshow / hide
Storage hall in which waste packages can be deposited in exceptional circumstances in order to ensure fault-free operation of the storage process.
Buffer tunnelshow / hide
Passage way between the transfer hall and the shaft hall, used to park the flatbed rail wagons.
building material facilityshow / hide
Facility for the production of building materials (such as Sorel concrete).