- What are electromagnetic fields?
- Static and low-frequency fields
- What are static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields?
- Direct and alternating voltage
- Effects of static and low-frequency fields
- Reports & Evaluations
- Radiation protection relating to the expansion of the national grid
- Basics transfer of electrical power
- High-frequency fields
- What are high-frequency fields?
- Applications high-frequency fields
- Radiation protection in mobile communication
- What is mobile communication?
- Reports and evaluations
- What is optical radiation?
- UV radiation
- What is UV radiation?
- Sun but safe!
- Effects of UV radiation
- Protection against UV radiation
- UV index
- Infrared radiation
- What is ionising radiation?
- Radioactivity in the environment
- Where does radioactivity occur in the environment?
- What is the level of natural radiation exposure in Germany?
- Air, soil and water
- Building materials
- Industrial residues (NORM)
- BfS laboratories
- Applications in medicine
- Radiation protection in medicine: international activities
- Applications in daily life and in technology
- Radioactive radiation sources in Germany
- Register high-level radioactive radiation sources
- Type approval procedure
- Cabin luggage security checks
- Radioactive materials in watches
- Ionisation smoke detectors (ISM)
- What are the effects of radiation?
- Effects of selected radioactive materials
- Consequences of a radiation accident
- Cancer and leukaemia
- Genetic radiation effects
- Individual radiosensitivity
- Epidemiology of radiation-induced diseases
- Ionising radiation: positive effects?
- Risk estimation and assessment
- Radiation protection
- Basic information
- Occupational radiation protection
- Nuclear accident management
- What is an emergency?
- What happens in an emergency?
- Federal and state tasks
- In the event of an emergency
- Measuring networks
- Exercises for emergency situations
- Defence against nuclear hazards
- Service offers
- Radon measurements
- Incorporation monitoring
- Biological dosimetry
- Online library
- About us
- Science and research
- Research concept
- Scientific collaborations
- EU research framework programme
- BfS research programme
- Third-party funded research
- Departmental research
- Selected research projects
- Selected research results
- Professional opinions
- Science Council
- Laws and regulations
- BfS Topics in the Bundestag
European Network on Education and Training in Radiation Protection (ENETRAP)
Everywhere in Europe, a decrease in radiation protection competency can be observed, since experienced experts retire and young people do no longer consider this field to be their intended career. New initiatives are to counteract this development. It is intended to concentrate the available resources through a "Europeanisation" of those parts of training and education that are not bound to national regulations.
The ENETRAP project (ENETRAP = European Network on Education and Training in Radiation Protection) in which BfS was in charge of one work package, was discontinued at the end of 2007, after it had successfully developed and had shown good results such as the establishment of a study course "European Master in Radiation Protection". It had become apparent during the course of the project that a number of important issues needed further investigation. Therefore representatives of large European radiation protection authorities or, respectively, research and training centres from Belgium, Germany, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Hungary, and Romania, submitted a proposal for further improvement of education and training in radiation protection in Europe within the scope of the RP7: the ENETRAP II project.
The generic objectives of this initiative are:
- Further improvement of the high safety level in the handling of radioactive materials and radiation sources in all EU countries through harmonisation of education and training measures in radiation protection;
- Europe-wide standardised implementation of the EU safety standards in radiation protection;
- Support of the acceding countries with respect to the building of competence or, respectively, to the preservation of competence in radiation protection.
These objectives are achieved through further expanding the European education and training network and performing competence-preserving measures such as joint training activities in modular form and with varying venues, new ways to communicate knowledge (such as e-learning) and to standardise contents.
The following work packages of the ENETRAP II project contribute to further harmonising education and training in radiation protection in Europe:
- Coordination of the project
- Define requirements and methodology for recognition of RPEs
- Define requirements for RPO competencies and establish reference standards for RPO training
- Establish the reference standard for RPE training
- Develop and apply mechanisms for the evaluation of training material, events and providers.
- Create a database of training events and training providers (including OJT) conforming to the agreed standard
- Develop some course material examples (text book, e-learning modules)
- Organise pilot sessions, test proposed methodologies and monitor the training scheme effectiveness
- Introduction of the training passport and mutual recognition system of RPEs
- Bringing together initiatives to attract young researchers
ENETRAP II has been completed end of 2012. Reports on the findings and results of the project can be found on the ENETRAP Homepage.
The ENETRAP III project started in June 2014. New topics have been included in the work programme, such as for example the implementation of ECVET (European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training). Moreover a train-the-trainers strategy was developed. More information can be found on the ENETRAP homepage.
State of 2018.03.06
- BfS' co-operation with international organisations
- OPERRA – Open Project for the European Radiation Research Area
- MELODI: Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative
- High Level and Expert Group on low dose risk research
- Network of Excellence: Low Dose Research towards Multidisciplinary Integration (DoReMi-NoE)
- NERIS - European Platform on preparedness for nuclear and radiological emergency response and recovery
- Dose Datamed 2
- Towards a European Network of Excellence in Biological Dosimetry (TENEB)
- European Network on Education and Training in Radiation Protection (ENETRAP)
- European ALARA Network
- European Medical ALARA Network (EMAN)
- European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS)