- What are electromagnetic fields?
- Static and low-frequency fields
- What are static and low-frequency fields?
- Direct and alternating voltage
- Effects of static and low-frequency fields
- Reports & Evaluations
- Radiation protection relating to the expansion of the national grid
- Basics transfer of electrical power
- High-frequency fields
- What are high-frequency fields?
- Applications high-frequency fields
- Radiation protection in mobile communication
- What is mobile communication?
- Reports and evaluations
- What is optical radiation?
- UV radiation
- What is UV radiation?
- Sun but safe!
- Effects of UV radiation
- Protection against UV radiation
- UV index
- Infrared radiation
- What is ionising radiation?
- Radioactivity in the environment
- Where does radioactivity occur in the environment?
- What is the level of natural radiation exposure in Germany?
- Air, soil and water
- Building materials
- Industrial residues (NORM)
- BfS laboratories
- Applications in medicine
- Applications in daily life and in technology
- Radioactive radiation sources in Germany
- Register high-level radioactive radiation sources
- Type approval procedure pursuant to RöV and StrlSchV
- Cabin luggage security checks
- Radioactive materials in watches
- Ionisation smoke detectors (ISM)
- What are the effects of radiation?
- Acute radiation damage
- Effects of selected radioactive materials
- Consequences of a radiation accident
- Cancer and leukaemia
- Genetic radiation effects
- Individual radiosensitivity
- Epidemiology of radiation-induced diseases
- Ionising radiation: positive effects?
- Risk estimation and assessment
- Radiation protection
- Basic informations
- Occupational radiation protection
- Nuclear accident management
- What happens in an emergency?
- Federal and state tasks
- In the event of an emergency
- Measuring networks
- Exercises for emergency situations
- Nuclear accidents
- Defence against nuclear hazards
- Service offers
- Radon measurements
- Incorporation monitoring
- Biological dosimetry
- About us
- Science and research
- Research concept
- Scientific collaborations
- EU research framework programme
- BfS research programme
- Third-party funded research
- Departmental research
- Selected research projects
- Selected research results
- Professional opinions
- Laws and regulations
- BfS Topics in the Bundestag
BfS' co-operation with international organisations
The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) co-operates with scientific organisations and regulatory bodies on both the national and international level in all its areas of activity, that is, radiation protection, nuclear safety, transport and storage of radioactive substances, as well as disposal of radioactive waste.
The most important goals of international co-operation are:
- active participation in the development of internationally recognized standards for both radiation protection and handling of radioactive substances,
- exchange of experience with international partners in order to identify needs for improvements within the BfS’s own responsibility,
- scientific exchange on methods and findings, on the assessment of the international status of science and technology and its further development, and on co-operation for research and studies,
- exchange of information, and providing support or assistance, as required.
International co-operation to develop standards and regulations
Radiation protection limits and standards are implemented in Germany based on international recommendations and regulations as in most other countries. For ionising radiation, the related procedure can be outlined as follows: Based on scientific reports on radiation exposure and their review by UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation), the ICRP (International Commission on Radiation Protection) issues recommendations to update, consolidate and further develop the regime of radiation protection.
The European Commission (EC), or the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna then apply these recommendations within the framework of the EURATOM Treaty or of international agreements, respectively, to convert basic parts into directives, regulations and other rules. The procedures to be performed in the different areas (ionising radiation, non-ionising radiation) are similar.
EU Directives have to be implemented into national legislation
Member States are obliged to implement EU Directives into national legislation. For instance, the ICRP Recommendation 60, published in 1990, gave rise to the EURATOM Basic Safety Standards (EU Directive 96/29/EURATOM of May 13, 1996), which were put into national legislation by the revised version of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV) and X-Ray Ordinance (RöV) which came into effect in 2001, or 2002, respectively. ICRP Report No.103 was published at the end of 2007. The IAEA has implemented this recommendation in the new "Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards", published at the end of 2011 as No. GSR Part 3. On 5 December 2013, the European Council adopted the Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM of 5 December 2013 laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation.
International exchange of experience
Although differences in the procedures and the legal framework relating to radiation protection, nuclear safety and waste management exist in many countries, the international exchange of experience and information is essential to provide for protection of both population and environment. International co-operation takes place in all BfS departments. BfS therefore, in agreement with BMUB and other Federal Ministries, is represented in all relevant international bodies, in order to contribute the German expertise and appropriately represent the national interests.
An international platform is provided by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). NEA supports several senior expert committees in the fields of law, radiation protection, nuclear regulatory activities, safety of nuclear installations and waste management, as well as additional expert and working groups in each committee.
In addition to the international framework, there are bilateral agreements with the neighbouring states of Germany for routine consultations and intensive exchange on the expert level.
Arguments for the BfS' co-operation with international organisations
Extensive co-operation between the BfS and international organisations is based on the following arguments:
- The fundamental biologic effects of ionising and non-ionising radiation as well as the behaviour of radioactive materials in the environment are the same everywhere. It is, therefore, expedient to compare empirical data from observations, experiments and their derived models so that, on the one hand, questions of evaluations can be validated and, on the other, work is not duplicated.
- This becomes even more relevant in a time when every country is witnessing major personnel cutbacks in this field. Through international co-operation, competence can be preserved: Either certain groups can specialise in specific topics or personnel can be swapped, thereby keeping each other up-to-date.
- Moreover, there is a sheer practical necessity to react to both the mergence of markets within the EU and to the associated trans-national activities of its employees.
International tasks of the BfS
The BfS is also a WHO (World Health Organization) International Collaborating Centre in various areas of radiation protection, thus actively contributing to the work done by the WHO. The BfS tasks of a Collaborating Centre cover five subject areas:
- Radiation risks in the low dose range,
- Network on biological dosimetry,
- Non-ionising radiation,
- Radon risk communication and
- Medical radiation exposure.
All these five projects are aimed at scientific assessment of potential and existing risks to health and environment. Based on these objectives, BfS will make recommendations for behaviour to the public.
Within the scope of control of the nuclear test ban treaty, coordinated by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), BfS operates the only measurement station for radioactivity in the air in Central Europe. Currently, the worldwide measuring network consists of 60 stations; at a later stage of expansion, there will be 80 highly sensitive measurement systems for radioactivity in the air, stationed all over the world.
International co-operation focuses on the scientific exchange of knowledge
Finally, international co-operation is not only a matter of scientific exchange; it is an overall concept, on the one hand providing incentives for our staff members, that is, opportunities to work at other organisations, on the other hand providing benefits for the delegating organisation. In other words: International co-operation focuses on the scientific exchange of knowledge and promoting of science and technology (see also "EU Research Framework Programme") but also on getting to know the safety cultures and environments in which radiation protection is practised.
State of 2017.01.04
- BfS' co-operation with international organisations
- OPERRA – Open Project for the European Radiation Research Area
- MELODI: Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative
- High Level and Expert Group on low dose risk research
- Network of Excellence: Low Dose Research towards Multidisciplinary Integration (DoReMi-NoE)
- NERIS - European Platform on preparedness for nuclear and radiological emergency response and recovery
- Dose Datamed 2
- Towards a European Network of Excellence in Biological Dosimetry (TENEB)
- European Network on Education and Training in Radiation Protection (ENETRAP)
- European ALARA Network
- European Medical ALARA Network (EMAN)
- European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS)