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Glossar

Deutschsprachiges Glossar

IARC classification for carcinogenicityEinklappen / Ausklappen

The IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) developed a five-tier classification scheme for carcinogenicity, that is the risk to develop cancer, referring to 935 agents at present (IARC Monographs, Volume 1-100, as of 30 August 2010).

ImmissionEinklappen / Ausklappen

Immission describes the impact of environmental factors (as e.g. ionising radiation, electromagnetic fields, noise, pollutants) on humans and the environment.

ImmobilisationEinklappen / Ausklappen

Immobilising, embedding or casting of possibly pre-treated radioactive waste.

Immobilisation materialEinklappen / Ausklappen

Material such as glass, cement/concrete, bitumen or plastic used to immobilise radioactive waste .

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Incidence rate Einklappen / Ausklappen

In a cohort study the incidence rate is the ratio of the incidences to the totality of persons in a cohort observed during a certain period.

IncidentEinklappen / Ausklappen

Course of events leading, for safety reasons, to a discontinuation of the facility’s operation or the activity. The facility must be designed for this course of events or precautions must be taken for the activities.

InclineEinklappen / Ausklappen

A rock layer’s angle of inclination to the horizontal level according to size and direction.

Incorporation Einklappen / Ausklappen

Generally: uptake into the body. Especially: uptake of radioactive substances into the human body.

Individual doseEinklappen / Ausklappen

Quantity of radiation exposure to individuals due to ionising radiation.

Induction Einklappen / Ausklappen

Process in which electric current (eddy current) is generated in a conductor when the magnetic flux within this conductor is changed.

Influence Einklappen / Ausklappen

Process in which a redistribution of charge occurs through an outer electric field, so that a surplus of positive and negative electric charges occur locally at the surface of this body.

influent saline solutionsEinklappen / Ausklappen

Saline solutions flowing into the mine.

Ingestion Einklappen / Ausklappen

Generally: uptake of food. Especially: uptake of radioactive substances with food.

Inhalation Einklappen / Ausklappen

Generally: breathing in of gases. Especially: uptake of radioactive substances with breathed air.

Inner containerEinklappen / Ausklappen

Container to take up waste products; placed into waste containers/casks.

Instrumentation and controlEinklappen / Ausklappen

Control and regulation of technical processes.

Integrated Measuring and Information System for the Monitoring of Environmental Radioactivity (IMIS)Einklappen / Ausklappen

IMIS is a nation-wide comprehensive measuring system which permanently monitors the radioactivity in all important environmental media in the whole area of the Federal Republic of Germany. Federation and Laender share in this task: federal authorities monitor the large-area transport of radioactive substances and their distribution in air and water - Laender authorities monitor radioactivity where radioactive substances deposit and can possibly enter the food chain of man. IMIS comprises more than 2000 stationary measuring stations for the monitoring the gamma dose rate and the activity concentration in air, precipitation and watercourses. Additionally, radioactivity is permanently measured in food, feedstuffs, drinking water but also in residues and waste waters. All measuring institutions at federation and Laender are connected through a computer-aided data monitoring system to the Central Federal Agency at the Federal Office for Radiation Protection.

IntensityEinklappen / Ausklappen

Measure of the local macroseismic effects of an earthquake at the earth’s surface to humans, buildings and landscape. The 12-point scale MSK 1964 (Medvedev, Sponheuer, Karnik) is used for classification. Short form of the 12 point macroseismic intensity scale MSK 1964 (Sponheuer, 1965).

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Intensity IEinklappen / Ausklappen

Not noticeable. Only registered by earth quake instruments

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Intensity IIEinklappen / Ausklappen

Hardly noticeable. Only perceived by resting persons in individual cases.

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Intensity IIIEinklappen / Ausklappen

Weak, only observed partially.

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Intensity IVEinklappen / Ausklappen

Largely observed. Perceived in houses by many persons, in the open just by a few persons.

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Intensity IXEinklappen / Ausklappen

General damage to buildings.

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Intensity VEinklappen / Ausklappen

Rousing from sleep. Observed by everyone in houses, in the open by many persons.

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Intensity VIEinklappen / Ausklappen

Alarming. First slight damage to buildings

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Intensity VIIEinklappen / Ausklappen

Damage to buildings

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Intensity VIIIEinklappen / Ausklappen

Partial destruction of buildings.

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Intensity XEinklappen / Ausklappen

Landslides. General damage to buildings. Cracks up to one metre wide in the ground.

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Intensity XIEinklappen / Ausklappen

Disaster. Serious damage to even best-constructed buildings. Numerous landslides and cracks in the ground.

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Intensity XIIEinklappen / Ausklappen

Changing landscape. Major transformation to the earth’s surface.

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Interim storage Einklappen / Ausklappen

Temporally limited storage of spent fuel elements or radioactive waste prior to their disposal. Spent fuel elements are to be stored in decentralised interim storage facilities on the sites of the nuclear power plants, in fact until they have been conditioned suitably for disposal in a repository.

Interim storage facilities on the NPP site Einklappen / Ausklappen

Facilities where spent fuel elements can be stored in appropriate transport and storage containers on the site of a nuclear power plant until their conditioning suitable for disposal in a repository. Storage time is planned to be 40 years at maximum, starting at loading of the first container.

intermediate-level radioactive wasteEinklappen / Ausklappen

Radioactive waste requiring additional shielding of the containers when being handled.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)Einklappen / Ausklappen

International organisation founded in 1957 for the support of the peaceful application and use of nuclear energy, registered office in Vienna. The IAEA is an independent organisation within the UN.

International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)Einklappen / Ausklappen

International body in the field of radiation protection. The International Commission on Radiological Protection consists of a chairperson, twelve other members and the secretary. The members are elected through the ICRP of nominations submitted by the national delegations of the International Congress and by their own members. The members of the ICRP are selected on the basis of their acknowledged performance in the fields medical radiology, radiation protection, physics, medical physics, biology, genetics, biochemistry, and biophysics. The ICRP was founded in 1928, then named "International X-ray and Radium Protection Committee", upon decision of the 2nd International Congress for Radiology. In 1950 it was restructured and renamed. The Commission works in close co-operation with the International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements (ICRU) and has official connections to the World Health Organisation (WHO).

Interneurons Einklappen / Ausklappen

Nerve cells which serve to control excitation and to process information by switching other nerve cells inhibitorily or excitingly.

Intervention Einklappen / Ausklappen

Intervention in order to get influence on existing exposure pathways with the objective to effect a reduction in exposure even when parties involved are exposed more during the time of intervention.

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Interventional radiology Einklappen / Ausklappen

Procedure in which healing measures - mainly the stretching of narrowed or locked blood vessels are performed under fluoroscopic control.

In vitro Einklappen / Ausklappen

In the test tube (observed or performed).

In vivo Einklappen / Ausklappen

At the living object (observed or performed).

Ionisation Einklappen / Ausklappen

Discharge or uptake of electrons through atoms or molecules which are converted into an electrically charged state through this.

Ionising radiation Einklappen / Ausklappen

Each type of radiation generating directly or indirectly electrically charged atomic or molecular particles, so-called ions, by taking up or discharging electrons from neutral atoms or molecules and is thus in a position to effect ionisation processes at atoms and molecules in the matter penetrated by it. Alpha radiation: Particle radiation in the form of nuclei of the helium element (alpha particles). Beta radiation: Particle radiation in the form of electrons (beta particles). Gamma radiation: High-energetic, short-wave electromagnetic radiation being emitted at the radioactive decay of a nuclide from the atomic nucleus. It occurs frequently together with alpha and beta radiation. Neutron radiation: Radiation in the form of electrically neutral elementary particles (neutrons). X-radiation: High-energetic, short-wave electromagnetic radiation being generated with the help of technical equipment (X-ray tube). X-radiation and gamma radiation are identical in the basic physical nature.

Isotope Einklappen / Ausklappen

Atoms of one and the same chemical elements with the same number of protons (same atomic number but different nuclear number) and electrons but different number of neutrons. Isotopes have the same chemical but different nucleonic characteristics.

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